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David Guzik :: Study Guide for Numbers 28

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The Sacrificial System

A. Offerings related to time periods.

1. (Num 28:1-8) The morning and evening offering.

Now the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, "Command the children of Israel, and say to them, 'My offering, My food for My offerings made by fire as a sweet aroma to Me, you shall be careful to offer to Me at their appointed time.' And you shall say to them, 'This is the offering made by fire which you shall offer to the LORD: two male lambs in their first year without blemish, day by day, as a regular burnt offering. The one lamb you shall offer in the morning, the other lamb you shall offer in the evening, and one-tenth of an ephah of fine flour as a grain offering mixed with one-fourth of a hin of pressed oil. 'It is a regular burnt offering which was ordained at Mount Sinai for a sweet aroma, an offering made by fire to the LORD. And its drink offering shall be one-fourth of a hin for each lamb; in a holy place you shall pour out the drink to the LORD as an offering. The other lamb you shall offer in the evening; as the morning grain offering and its drink offering, you shall offer it as an offering made by fire, a sweet aroma to the LORD.'"

a. Day by day, as a regular burnt offering: Israel was commanded to bring a male lamb to the LORD every morning and every evening. Each day began and ended with this statement of the need for atonement by sacrifice and expression of devotion to the LORD.

b. You shall offer in the morning … you shall offer in the evening: This reminds us that it is appropriate to begin and end our day with a statement of trust in God's atonement and expression of our devotion to Him.

i. We should be like the Psalmist and seek the LORD in the morning: My voice You shall hear in the morning, O LORD; in the morning I will direct it to You, and I will look up. (Psalm 5:3) But to You I have cried out, O LORD, and in the morning my prayer comes before You. (Psalm 88:13)

ii. We should be like the Psalmist and seek the LORD in the evening: When I remember You on my bed, I meditate on You in the night watches. (Psalm 63:6) Let my prayer be set before You as incense, the lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice. (Psalm 141:2)

iii. We should be like the Psalmist and seek the LORD all the time: Evening and morning and at noon I will pray, and cry aloud, and He shall hear my voice. (Psalm 55:17)

2. (Num 28:9-10) The Sabbath offering.

And on the Sabbath day two lambs in their first year, without blemish, and two-tenths of an ephah of fine flour as a grain offering, mixed with oil, with its drink offering; this is the burnt offering for every Sabbath, besides the regular burnt offering with its drink offering.

a. And on the Sabbath day two lambs: Every Sabbath day, an additional lamb was sacrificed every morning and every evening.

3. (Num 28:11-15) The monthly offering.

At the beginnings of your months you shall present a burnt offering to the LORD: two young bulls, one ram, and seven lambs in their first year, without blemish; three-tenths of an ephah of fine flour as a grain offering, mixed with oil, for each bull; two-tenths of an ephah of fine flour as a grain offering, mixed with oil, for the one ram; and one-tenth of an ephah of fine flour, mixed with oil, as a grain offering for each lamb, as a burnt offering of sweet aroma, an offering made by fire to the LORD. Their drink offering shall be half a hin of wine for a bull, one-third of a hin for a ram, and one-fourth of a hin for a lamb; this is the burnt offering for each month throughout the months of the year. Also one kid of the goats as a sin offering to the LORD shall be offered, besides the regular burnt offering and its drink offering.

a. At the beginnings of your months you shall present a burnt offering to the LORD: 1 Samuel 20:5 gives an example of how this offering might become part of a monthly feast for the leaders of the nation.

b. This is the burnt offering for each month throughout the months of the year: "Later in Israel's history, the New Moon festivals may have become opportunities for excess, for licentious behavior. In the Prophets there are times when God says to his erring people, 'I hate your New Moons' (cf. Isaiah 1:14)." (Allen)

i. Isaiah 1:14 shows how these festivals became corrupted: Your New Moons and your appointed feasts My soul hates; they are a trouble to Me, I am weary of bearing them. We can come to the same place today, where God is tired of us going to church.

B. Offerings related to seasonal feasts.

1. (Num 28:16-25) Offerings at Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

On the fourteenth day of the first month is the Passover of the LORD. And on the fifteenth day of this month is the feast; unleavened bread shall be eaten for seven days. On the first day you shall have a holy convocation. You shall do no customary work. And you shall present an offering made by fire as a burnt offering to the LORD: two young bulls, one ram, and seven lambs in their first year. Be sure they are without blemish. Their grain offering shall be of fine flour mixed with oil: three-tenths of an ephah you shall offer for a bull, and two-tenths for a ram; you shall offer one-tenth of an ephah for each of the seven lambs; also one goat as a sin offering, to make atonement for you. You shall offer these besides the burnt offering of the morning, which is for a regular burnt offering. In this manner you shall offer the food of the offering made by fire daily for seven days, as a sweet aroma to the LORD; it shall be offered besides the regular burnt offering and its drink offering. And on the seventh day you shall have a holy convocation. You shall do no customary work.

a. On the fourteenth day of the first month is the Passover of the LORD: In addition to the lamb each household was to offer to God, the priests were also required to bring these offerings to God at the time of Passover on behalf of the entire nation.

2. (Num 28:26-31) Offerings at the Feast of Weeks (Pentecost).

Also on the day of the firstfruits, when you bring a new grain offering to the LORD at your Feast of Weeks, you shall have a holy convocation. You shall do no customary work. You shall present a burnt offering as a sweet aroma to the LORD: two young bulls, one ram, and seven lambs in their first year, with their grain offering of fine flour mixed with oil: three-tenths of an ephah for each bull, two-tenths for the one ram, and one-tenth for each of the seven lambs; also one kid of the goats, to make atonement for you. Be sure they are without blemish. You shall present them with their drink offerings, besides the regular burnt offering with its grain offering.

a. One kid of the goats, to make atonement for you: The primary meaning of the Feast of Pentecost was not atonement, but thanksgiving for the harvest. Yet every feast of Israel was to carry with it the idea of atonement. Just the same, our own life should be lived in constant awareness of the atonement made for us.

© 2006 David Guzik - No distribution beyond personal use without permission

CONTENT DISCLAIMER:

The Blue Letter Bible ministry and the BLB Institute hold to the historical, conservative Christian faith, which includes a firm belief in the inerrancy of Scripture. Since the text and audio content provided by BLB represent a range of evangelical traditions, all of the ideas and principles conveyed in the resource materials are not necessarily affirmed, in total, by this ministry.

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