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Study Resources :: Dictionaries :: Hard, Harden, Hardening, Hardness

Dictionaries :: Hard, Harden, Hardening, Hardness

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Below are articles from the following dictionary:
Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words
A-1 Adjective Strong's Number: g4642 Greek: skleros

Hard, Harden, Hardening, Hardness:

from skello, "to dry," signifies "trying, exacting:" see AUSTERE.

A-2 Adjective Strong's Number: g1422 Greek: duskolos

Hard, Harden, Hardening, Hardness:

primarily means "hard to satisfy with food" (dus, a prefix like Eng., un--, or mis--, indicating "difficulty, opposition, injuriousness," ect., the opposite of, eu, "well," and kolon, "food"); hence, "difficult," Mar 10:24, of the "difficulty," for those who trust in riches, to enter into the Kingdom of God.

B-1 Noun Strong's Number: g4643 Greek: skelerotes

Hard, Harden, Hardening, Hardness:

akin to A, No. 1, is rendered "hardness" in Rom 2:5.

B-2 Noun Strong's Number: g4457 Greek: porosis

Hard, Harden, Hardening, Hardness:

denotes "a hardening," a covering with a poros, a kind of stone, indicating "a process" (from poroo, C, No. 1), and is used metaphorically of dulled spiritual perception, Mar 3:5, RV, "at the hardening of their hearts;" Rom 11:25, RV, "a hardening" (AV, "blindness"), said of the state of Israel; Eph 4:18, RV, "hardening," of the heart of Gentiles.

Note: See also under HARDSHIP and HEART (hardness of).

C-1 Verb Strong's Number: g4456 Greek: poroo

Hard, Harden, Hardening, Hardness:

"to make hard, callous, to petrify" (akin to B, No. 2), is used metaphorically, of the heart, Mar 6:52; 8:17; Jhn 12:40; of the mind (or thoughts), 2Cr 3:14, of those in Israel who refused the revealed will and ways of God in the Gospel, as also in Rom 11:7, RV, "hardened" (AV, "blinded"), in both places.

C-2 Verb Strong's Number: g4645 Greek: skleruno

Hard, Harden, Hardening, Hardness:

"to make dry or hard" (akin to A, No. 1 and B, No. 1), is used in Act 19:9; in Rom 9:18, illustrated by the case of Pharaoh, who first persistently "hardened" his heart (see the RV marg. of Exd 7:13, 22; 8:19; text of Exd 8:32; 9:7), all producing the retributive "hardening" by God, after His much long-suffering, Exd 9:12, etc., in Hbr 3:8, 13, 15; 4:7, warnings against the "hardening" of the heart.


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