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Study Resources :: Dictionaries :: Accusation, Accuse

Dictionaries :: Accusation, Accuse

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Below are articles from the following dictionary:
Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words
A-1 Noun Strong's Number: g156 Greek: aitia

Accusation, Accuse:

probably has the primary meaning of "a cause, especially an occasion of something evil, hence a charge, an accusation." It is used in a forensic sense, of

(a) an accusation, Act 25:18 (RV, "charge"), Act 25:27;

(b) a crime, Mat 27:37; Mar 15:26; Jhn 18:38; 19:4, 6; Act 13:28; 23:28; 28:18.

A-2 Noun Strong's Number: g157 Greek: aitioma

Accusation, Accuse:

"an accusation," expressing No. 1 more concretely, is found in Act 25:7, RV, "charges," for AV, "complaints."

A-3 Noun Strong's Number: g1462 Greek: enklema

Accusation, Accuse:

is "an accusation made in public," but not necessarily before a tribunal. That is the case in Act 23:29, "laid to his charge." In Act 25:16 it signifies a matter of complaint; hence, the RV has "the matter laid against him" (AV, "crime").

A-4 Noun Strong's Number: g2724 Greek: kategoria

Accusation, Accuse:

"an accusation," is found in Jhn 18:29; 1Ti 5:19; Tts 1:6, lit., "not under accusation." This and the verb kategoreo, "to accuse," and the noun kategoros, "an accuser" (see below), all have chiefly to do with judicial procedure, as distinct from diaballo, "to slander." It is derived from agora, "a place of public speaking," prefixed by kata, "against;" hence, it signifies a speaking against a person before a public tribunal. It is the opposite to apologia, "a defense."

Note: Krisis, which has been translated "accusation," in the AV of 2Pe 2:11; Jud 1:9 (RV, "judgement"), does not come under this category. It signifies "a judgment, a decision given concerning anything."

B-1 Verb Strong's Number: g1225 Greek: diaballo

Accusation, Accuse:

used in Luk 16:1, in the Passive Voice, lit. signifies "to hurl across" (dia, "through," ballo, "to throw"), and suggests a verbal assault. It stresses the act rather than the author, as in the case of aitia and kategoria. Diabolos is connected.

B-2 Verb Strong's Number: g1458 Greek: enkaleo

Accusation, Accuse:

see A, No. 3, "to bring a charge against, or to come forward as an accuser against," lit. denotes "to call in" (en, "in," kaleo, "to call"), i.e., "to call (something) in or against (someone);" hence, "to call to account, to accuse," Act 19:38, RV (AV, "implead"); in Act 19:40, "accused" (AV, "call in question"). It is used in four other places in the Acts 23:28, 29; 26:2, 7, and elsewhere in Rom 8:33, "shall lay to the charge."

B-3 Verb Strong's Number: g1908 Greek: epereazo

Accusation, Accuse:

besides its more ordinary meaning, "to insult, treat abusively, despitefully," Luk 6:28, has the forensic significance "to accuse falsely," and is used with this meaning in 1Pe 3:16, RV, "revile."

B-4 Verb Strong's Number: g2723 Greek: kategoreo

Accusation, Accuse:

"to speak against, accuse" (cp. A, No. 4), is used

(a) in a general way, "to accuse," e.g., Luk 6:7, RV, "how to accuse;" Rom 2:15; Rev 12:10;

(b) before a judge, e.g., Mat 12:10; Mar 15:4 (RV, "witness against"); Act 22:30; 25:16. In Act 24:19, RV renders it "make accusation," for the AV, "object."

B-5 Verb Strong's Number: g4811 Greek: sukophanteo

Accusation, Accuse:

(Eng., "sycophant") means

(a) "to accuse wrongfully;" Luk 3:14 (AV and RV, margin); RV, "exact wrongfully;"

(b) "to exact money wrongfully, to take anything by false accusation," Luk 19:8, and the RV text of Luk 3:14. It is more frequently found in the Sept.; see Gen 43:18, "to inform against;" Lev 19:11, "neither shall each falsely accuse his neighbor;" Job 35:9, "they that are oppressed by false accusation;" Psa 119:122, "let not the proud accuse me falsely;" Pro 14:31; 22:16 "he that oppresses the needy by false accusation."

The word is derived from sukon, "a fig," and phaino, "to show." At Athens a man whose business it was to give information against anyone who might be detected exporting figs out of the province, is said to have been called a sukophantes (see Note (2) below). Probably, however, the word was used to denote one who brings figs to light by shaking the tree, and then in a metaphorical sense one who makes rich men yield up their fruit by "false accusation." Hence in general parlance it was used to designate "a malignant informer," one who accused from love of gain.

Note: Proaitiaomai denotes "to bring a previous charge against," Rom 3:9, RV.

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