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Study Resources :: Dictionaries :: Dark, Darken, Darkly, Darkness

Dictionaries :: Dark, Darken, Darkly, Darkness

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Below are articles from the following dictionary:
Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words
A-1 Adjective Strong's Number: g4652 Greek: skoteinos

Dark, Darken, Darkly, Darkness:

"full of darkness, or covered with darkness," is translated "dark" in Luk 11:36; "full of darkness," in Mat 6:23; Luk 11:34, where the physical condition is figurative of the moral. The group of skot-words is derived from a root ska--, meaning "to cover." The same root is to be found in skene, "a tent."

Note: Contrast photeinos, "full of light," e.g., Mat 6:22.

A-2 Adjective Strong's Number: g850 Greek: auchmeros

Dark, Darken, Darkly, Darkness:

from auchmos, "drought produced by excessive heat," hence signifies "dry, murky, dark," 2Pe 1:19 (RV marg., "squalid"). No. 1 signifies "darkness" produced by covering; No. 2, "darkness" produced by being squalid or murky.

B-1 Noun Strong's Number: g4653 Greek: skotia

Dark, Darken, Darkly, Darkness:

is used

(a) of physical darkness, "dark," Jhn 6:17, lit., "darkness had come on," and Jhn 20:1, lit., "darkness still being;"

(b) of secrecy, in general, whether what is done therein is good or evil, Mat 10:27; Luk 12:3;

(c) of spiritual or moral "darkness," emblematic of sin, as a condition of moral or spiritual depravity, Mat 4:16; Jhn 1:5; 8:12; 12:35, 46; 1Jo 1:5; 2:8, 9, 11.

B-2 Noun Strong's Number: g4655 Greek: skotos

Dark, Darken, Darkly, Darkness:

an older form than No. 1, grammatically masculine, is found in some mss. in Hbr 12:18.

B-3 Noun Strong's Number: g4655 Greek: skotos

Dark, Darken, Darkly, Darkness:

a neuter noun, frequent in the Sept., is used in the NT as the equivalent of No. 1;

(a) of "physical darkness," Mat 27:45; 2Cr 4:6;

(b) of "intellectual darkness," Rom 2:19 (cp. C, No. 1);

(c) of "blindness," Act 13:11;

(d) by metonymy, of the "place of punishment," e.g., Mat 8:12; 2Pe 2:17; Jud 1:13;

(e) metaphorically, of "moral and spiritual darkness," e.g., Mat 6:23; Luk 1:79; 11:35; Jhn 3:19; Act 26:18; 2Cr 6:14; Eph 6:12; Col 1:13; 1Th 5:4, 5; 1Pe 2:9; 1Jo 1:6;

(f) by metonymy, of "those who are in moral or spiritual darkness," Eph 5:8;

(g) of "evil works," Rom 13:12; Eph 5:11;

(h) of the "evil powers that dominate the world," Luk 22:53;

(i) "of secrecy" [as in No. 1, (b)]. While skotos is used more than twice as many times as skotia in the NT, the Apostle John uses skotos only once, 1Jo 1:6, but skotia 15 times out of the 18.

"With the exception of the significance of secrecy [No. 1, (b) and No. 3 (i),] darkness is always used in a bad sense. Moreover the different forms of darkness are so closely allied, being either cause and effect, or else concurrent effects of the same cause, that they cannot always be distinguished; 1Jo 1:5; 2:8, e.g., are passages in which both spiritual and moral darkness are intended."*
[* From Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine, pp 157-158.]

B-4 Noun Strong's Number: g2217 Greek: zophos

Dark, Darken, Darkly, Darkness:

denotes "the gloom of the nether world;" hence, "thick darkness, darkness that may be felt;" it is rendered "darkness" in Hbr 12:18; 2Pe 2:4; Jud 1:6; in 2Pe 2:17, RV, "blackness," AV, "mists;" in Jud 1:13, RV and AV, "blackness."
See BLACKNESS, B, Nos. 1 and 2, MIST.

C-1 Verb Strong's Number: g4654 Greek: skotizo

Dark, Darken, Darkly, Darkness:

"to deprive of light, to make dark," is used in the NT in the Passive Voice only,

(a) of the heavenly bodies, Mat 24:29; Mar 13:24; Rev 8:12;

(b) metaphorically, of the mind, Rom 1:21; 11:10; (some mss. have it in Luk 23:45).

C-2 Verb Strong's Number: g4656 Greek: skotoo

Dark, Darken, Darkly, Darkness:

"to darken," is used

(a) of the heavenly bodies, Rev 9:2; 16:10;

(b) metaphorically, of the mind, Eph 4:18.

Note: The phrase en ainigmati, lit., "in an enigma," is rendered "darkly" in 1Cr 13:12. Ainigma is akin to the verb anissomai, "to hint obscurely." The allusion is to Num 12:8 (Sept.), "not in (dia, "by means of") dark speeches" (lit., "enigmas"); God's communications to Moses were not such as in the case of dreams, etc. After the same analogy, what we see and know now is seen "darkly" compared with the direct vision in the presence of God hereafter. The riddles of seeming obscurity in life will all be made clear.


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