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Study Resources :: Dictionaries :: Good, Goodly, Goodness

Dictionaries :: Good, Goodly, Goodness

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Below are articles from the following dictionary:
Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words
A-1 Adjective Strong's Number: g18 Greek: agathos

Good, Goodly, Goodness:

describes that which, being "good" in its character or constitution, is beneficial in its effect; it is used

(a) of things physical, e.g., a tree, Mat 7:17; ground, Luk 8:8;

(b) in a moral sense, frequently of persons and things. God is essentially, absolutely and consummately "good," Mat 19:17; Mar 10:18; Luk 18:19. To certain persons the word is applied in Mat 20:15; 25:21, 23; Luk 19:17; 23:50; Jhn 7:12; Act 11:24; Tts 2:5; in a general application, Mat 5:45; 12:35; Luk 6:45; Rom 5:7; 1Pe 2:18.

The neuter of the adjective with the definite article signifies that which is "good," lit., "the good," as being morally honorable, pleasing to God, and therefore beneficial. Christians are to prove it, Rom 12:2; to cleave to it, Rom 12:9; to do it, Rom 13:3; Gal 6:10; 1Pe 3:11 (here, and here only, the article is absent); Jhn 5:29 (here, the neuter plural is used, "the good things"); to work it, Rom 2:10; Eph 4:28; 6:8; to follow after it, 1Th 5:15; to be zealous of it, 1Pe 3:13; to imitate it, 3Jo 1:11; to overcome evil with it, Rom 12:21. Governmental authorities are ministers of "good," i.e., that which is salutary, suited to the course of human affairs, Rom 13:4. In Phm 1:14, "thy goodness," RV (lit., "thy good"), means "thy benefit." As to Mat 19:17, "why askest thou Me concerning that which is good?" the RV follows the most ancient mss.

The neuter plural is also used of material "goods," riches, etc., Luk 1:53; 12:18, 19; 16:25; Gal 6:6 (of temporal supplies); in Rom 10:15; Hbr 9:11; 10:1, the "good" things are the benefits provided through the sacrifice of Christ, in regard both to those conferred through the Gospel and to those of the coming Messianic Kingdom. See further under No. 2.

A-2 Adjective Strong's Number: g2570 Greek: kalos

Good, Goodly, Goodness:

denotes that which is intrinsically "good," and so, "goodly, fair, beautiful," as

(a) of that which is well adapted to its circumstances or ends, e.g., fruit, Mat 3:10; a tree, Mat 12:33; ground, Mat 13:8, 23; fish, Mat 13:48; the Law, Rom 7:16; 1Ti 1:8; every creature of God, 1Ti 4:4; a faithful minister of Christ and the doctrine he teaches, 1Ti 4:6;

(b) of that which is ethically good, right, noble, honorable, e.g., Gal 4:18; 1Ti 5:10, 25; 6:18; Tts 2:7, 14; 3:8, 14. The word does not occur in the Apocalypse, nor indeed after 1 Peter.

Christians are to "take thought for things honorable" (kalos), 2Cr 8:21, RV; to do that which is honorable, 2Cr 13:7; not to be weary in well doing, Gal 6:9; to hold fast "that which is good," 1Th 5:21; to be zealous of good works, Tts 2:14; to maintain them, Tts 3:8; to provoke to them, Hbr 10:24; to bear testimony by them, 1Pe 2:12.

Kalos and agathos occur together in Luk 8:15, an "honest" (kalos) heart, i.e., the attitude of which is right towards God; a "good" (agathos) heart, i.e., one that, instead of working ill to a neighbor, acts beneficially towards him. In Rom 7:18, "in me... dwelleth no good thing" (agathos) signifies that in him is nothing capable of doing "good," and hence he lacks the power "to do that which is good" (kalos). In 1Th 5:15, "follow after that which is good" (agathos), the "good" is that which is beneficial; in 1Th 5:21, "hold fast that which is good (kalos)," the "good" describes the instrinsic value of the teaching.

A-3 Adjective Strong's Number: g5543 Greek: chrestos

Good, Goodly, Goodness:

said of things, "that which is pleasant," said of persons, "kindly, gracious," is rendered "good" in 1Cr 15:33, "goodness" in Rom 2:4.


    Lampros denotes "gay, bright," "goodly" in Jam 2:2, AV, (RV, "fine"); in Jam 2:3, AV, "gay;" in Rev 18:14 (RV, "sumptuous").

   &nbspFor asteios, "goodly," Hbr 11:23, RV, see BEAUTIFUL.

   &nbspFor hikanos, Act 18:18, AV, "a good while" see WHILE, Note (16).

B-1 Noun Strong's Number: g5544 Greek: chrestotes

Good, Goodly, Goodness:

akin to A, No. 3, denotes "goodness"

(a) in the sense of what is upright, righteous, Rom 3:12 (translated "good");

(b) in the sense of kindness of heart or act, said of God, Rom 2:4; 11:22 (thrice); Eph 2:7 ("kindness"); Tts 3:4 ("kindness"); said of believers and rendered "kindness," 2Cr 6:6; Col 3:12; Gal 5:22 (RV; AV, "gentleness"). It signifies "not merely goodness as a quality, rather it is goodness in action, goodness expressing itself in deeds; yet not goodness expressing itself in indignation against sin, for it is contrasted with severity in Rom 11:22, but in grace and tenderness and compassion." *
[* From Notes on Galatians, by Hogg and Vine, p. 292.]

B-2 Noun Strong's Number: g19 Greek: agathosune

Good, Goodly, Goodness:

"goodness," signifies that moral quality which is described by the adjective agathos (see A, No. 1). It is used, in the NT, of regenerate persons, Rom 15:14; Gal 5:22; Eph 5:9; 2Th 1:11; in the last, the phrase "every desire of goodness" (RV; the addition of "His" in the AV is an interpolation; there is no pronoun in the original) may be either subjective, i.e., desire characterized by "goodness," "good" desire, or objective, i.e., desire after "goodness," to be and do good.

Trench, following Jerome, distinguishes between chrestotes and agathosune in that the former describes the kindlier aspects of "goodness," the latter includes also the sterner qualities by which doing "good" to others is not necessarily by gentle means. He illustrates the latter by the act of Christ in cleansing the temple, Mat 21:12, 13, and in denouncing the scribes and Pharisees, 23:13-29; but chrestotes by His dealings with the penitent woman, Luk 7:37-50. Lightfoot regards chrestotes as a kindly disposition towards others; agathosune as a kindly activity on their behalf.

J. A. Robertson (on Eph 5:9) remarks that agathosune is "the kindlier, as dikaiosune (righteousness) the sterner, element in the ideal character."

B-3 Noun Strong's Number: g2140 Greek: eupoiia

Good, Goodly, Goodness:

"beneficience, doing good" (eu, "well," poieo, "to do"), is translated as a verb in Hbr 13:16, "to do good."

C-1 Adverb Strong's Number: g2570 Greek: kalos

Good, Goodly, Goodness:

"well finely," is used in some mss. in Mat 5:44, with poieo, "to do," and translated "do good." In Jam 2:3 it is rendered "in a good place" (AV marg., "well" or "seemly").

C-2 Adverb Strong's Number: g2095 Greek: eu

Good, Goodly, Goodness:

"well," used with poieo, is translated "do... good" in Mar 14:7.

D-1 Verb Strong's Number: g15 Greek: agathopoieo

Good, Goodly, Goodness:

from A, No. 1, and poieo, "to do," is used

(a) in a general way, "to do well," 1Pe 2:15, 20; 3:6, 17; 3Jo 1:11;

(b) with pointed reference "to the benefit of another," Luk 6:9, 33, 35; in Mar 3:4 the parts of the word are separated in some mss. Some mss. have it in Act 14:17, for No. 2. Cp. the noun agathopoiia, "well-doing," 1Pe 4:19, and the adjective agathopoios, "doing well," 1Pe 2:14.

D-2 Verb Strong's Number: g14 Greek: agathourgeo

Good, Goodly, Goodness:

for agathoergeo, "to do good" (from A, No. 1, and ergon, "a work"), is used in Act 14:17 (in the best mss.; see No. 1), where it is said of God's beneficence towards man, and 1Ti 6:18, where it is enjoined upon the rich.

D-3 Verb Strong's Number: g2109 Greek: euergeteo

Good, Goodly, Goodness:

"to bestow a benefit, to do good" (eu, "well," and a verbal form akin to ergon), is used in Act 10:38.


(1) The verb ischuo, "to be strong" (ischus, "strength"), "to have efficacy, force or value," is said of salt in Mat 5:13, negatively, "it is good for nothing."

(2) In Mat 19:10, AV, sumphero, "to be profitable, expedient" (sun, "together," phero, "to bring"); is rendered with a negative "it is not good" (RV, "it is not expedient").

(3) In Mar 14:7, the two words eu, "well," and poieo, "to do," are in some mss. treated as one verb eupoieo, "to do good."


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