Search Bible
Click for Help   Click for QuickNav   Click for Advanced Search Options
Search KJV
Your Bible Version is the KJV
Go to Top
Link to This Page Cite This Page
Share this page Follow the BLB
Printable Page
The Blue Letter Bible

The Brown-Driver-Briggs Lexicon, Preface and Abbreviations

Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament With an Appendix Containing the Biblical Aramaic

Based on the lexicon of William Gesenius as translated by Edward Robinson, and edited with constant reference to the Thesaurus of Gesenius as completed by E. Rödiger, and with authorized use of the latest German editions of Gesenius' Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament

By Francis Brown, D.D., D.Litt.Davenport Professor of Hebrew and the Cognate Languages in the Union Theological Seminary.

with the Cooperation of
S. R. Driver, D.d., LITT.D. Regius Professor of Hebrew, and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford.
Charles A. Briggs, D.D., D.Litt, Edward Robinson Professor of Biblical Theology in the Union Theological Seminary.

Boston and New York Houghton Mifflin Company.


The need of a new Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament has been so long felt that no elaborate explanation of the appearance of the present work seems called for. Wilhelm Gesenius, the father of modern Hebrew Lexicography, died in 1842. His Lexicon Manuale Hebraicum et Chaldaicum in V. T. Libros representing a much riper stage of his lexicographical work than his earlier Hebrew dictionaries, was published in 1833, and the corresponding issue of his Hebräisches und Chaldäisches Handwörterbuch öber das Alte Testament, upon which the later German editions more or less directly depend, appeared in 1834. The Thesaurus philologicus Criticus Linguæ Hebrææ et Chaldææ Veteris Testamenti, begun by Gesenius some years earlier, and not completed at his death, was substantially finished by Roediger in 1853, although the concluding part, containing Indices, Additions and Corrections, was not published until 1858. The results of Gesenius' most advanced work were promptly put before English-speaking students. In 1824 appeared Gibbs' translation of the Neues Hebräisch-deutsches Handwörterbuch, issued by Gesenius in 1815, and in 1836 Edward Robinson published his translation of the Latin work of 1833. This broad-minded, sound and faithful scholar added to the successive editions of the book in its English form the newest materials and conclusions in the field of Hebrew word-study, receiving large and valuable contributions in manuscript from Gesenius himself, and, after the latter's death, carefully incorporating into his translation the substance of the Thesaurus, as its fasciculi appeared.

But the last revision of Robinson's Gesenius was made in 1854, and Robinson died in 1863. The last English edition of Gesenius, prepared by Tregelles, and likewise including additions from the Thesaurus, dates as far back as 1859. In the meantime Semitic studies have been pursued on all hands with energy and success. The language and the text of the Old Testament have been subjected to a minute and searching inquire before unknown. The languages cognate with Hebrew have claimed the attention of specialists in nearly all civilized countries. Wide fields of research have been opened, the very existence of which was a surprise, and have invited explorers. Arabic, ancient and modern, Ethiopic, with its allied dialects, Aramaic, in its various literatures and localities, have all yielded new treasures; while the discovery and decipherment of inscriptions from Babylonia and Assyria, Phœnicia, Northern Africa. Southern Arabia, and other old abodes of Semitic peoples, have contributed to a far more comprehensive and accurate knowledge of the Hebrew vocabulary in its sources, and its usage than was possible forty or fifty years ago. In Germany an attempt has been made to keep pace with advancing knowledge by frequent editions of the Handwörterbuch as well as by the brilliant and suggestive, though unequal, Wörterbuch of Siegfried and Stade (in 1892-93), but in England and America there has not been heretofore even so much as a serious attempt.

The present Editors consider themselves fortunate in thus having the opportunity afforded by an evident demand. Arrangements have been made whereby the rights connected with 'Robinson's Gesenius' are carried over to the present work, and exclusive authority to use the most recent German editions has been secured.1 They have felt, however, that the task which they had undertaken could not be rightly discharged by merely adding new knowledge to the old, or by substituting more recent opinions for others grown obsolete, or by any other form of superficial revision. At an early stage of the work they reached the conviction that their first and perhaps chief duty was to make a fresh and, as far as possible, exhaustive study of the Old Testament materials, determine the actual uses of words by detailed examination of every passage, comparing, at the same time, their employment in the related languages, and thus fix their proper meanings in Hebrew.

In the matter of etymologies they have endeavoured to carry out the method of sound philology, making it their aim to exclude arbitrary and fanciful conjectures, and in cases of uncertainty to afford the student the means of judging of the materials on which a decision depends. They could not have been satisfied to pursue the course chosen by Professors Siegfried and Stade, in excluding the etymological feature almost entirely from their lexicon. This method deprives the student of all knowledge as to the extra-Biblical history and relationship of his words, and of the stimulus to study the cognate languages, and lessens his opportunity of growing familiar with the modes of word-formation. It greatly simplifies, of course, the task of the lexicographer. The Editors acknowledge, at once, that their labours would have ended much sooner if they had not included the etymology of words, and they are sensible of the exposure to criticism at a thousand points which results from their undertaking to do so. They have cheerfully assumed this burden, and are ready to accept this criticism, from which they hope to learn much. Here, if anywhere, it is certain that results must, in many cases, long remain provisional. They have preferred to make what contribution they could to the final settlement of these difficult questions. For like reasons they have been unwilling to follow Buhl in excluding the explanation of the meaning of proper names, hazardous as such explanations often are.

That the Editors have made use of the Thesaurus of Gesenius on every page, with increasing admiration for the tireless diligence, philological insight and strong good sense of this great Lexicographer, and recognition of Robinson's wisdom in allowing him to speak directly to English students by the admirable translation and editorship of the Lexicon Manuale, need not be further emphasized. They have also made free reference to Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar in the successive editions prepared by Professor Kautzsch, follower of Gesenius at Halle, and, since 1898, to the excellent English translation of this book made by Messrs. Collins and Cowley, which appeared in that year. The Grammars of Ewald, Olshausen, Böttcher, Stade, August Müller and König, the Syntax of A. B. Davidson, and other grammatical works have been cited as occasion required. Nöldeke's contributions to Hebrew lexicography and grammar have been constantly used, with the works of Lagarde and Barth on the formation of nouns, of Gerber on denominative verbs, and many which cannot be catalogued here. All the critical commentaries and a great number and variety of textual, topographical and geographical works, with monographs and articles bearing on every possible aspect of Old Testament language, have been examined. The published materials for the study of the languages cognate with Hebrew have reached such proportions as to tax even the most industrious in any extended comparison of kindred words. For the Arabic, constant use has been made of the Dictionaries of Lane, Freytag, Dozy, Wahrmund, the Beirût Fathers, and others besides. The Editors have found themselves sharing with peculiar keenness in the unavailing regret of scholars that Mr. Lane's magnificent plan of complete Arabic lexicography was not destined to be realized. Fränkel's Aramäische Fremdwörter im Arabischen has been constantly used. For the vast and increasing storehouse of Assyrian, — as yet most imperfectly explored, — the dictionaries of Delitzsch and — as far as the times of its appearance allowed — Muss-Arnolt have been employed, as well as Meissner's Supplement, and many special vocabularies. Paul Haupt, Bezold, Guyard, Strassmaier, Zimmern, Jensen, Winckler, Scheil, Sayce, King, Johns, R. F. Harper, and many writers in the Zeitschrift f&uouml;r Assyriologie, the Beiträge zur Assyriologie und Semitischen Sprachwissenschaft, and other publications, have been laid under contribution. A place of honour must here be given to Eberhard Schrader, the founder of Assyriology in Germany, whose fruitful work has been prematurely cut short by impaired health, and the Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek, begun by him, is mentioned here many times. Winckler is of course recognized as the chief editor of the inscriptions from Tel el-Amarna. For Syriac, the Thesaurus of R. Payne Smith and the Lexicon of Brockelmann have been always at hand, with Castell accessible in case of need. Constant reference has been made to Nöldeke's Syrische Grammatik (now, fortunately, translated), as well as his older works, the Neusyrische Grammatik and the priceless Mandäische Grammatik. Duval and Nestle, also, have been laid under contribution. The Aramaic of the Targums and other Jewish-Aramaic documents, as well as the post-Biblical Hebrew, have been examined in the dictionaries of Buxtorf, J. Levy, Jastrow and Dalman, the collections of Bacher, the grammars of Strack, Marti and Dalman. the editions of Lagarde, Berliner and Merx, as well as the older publications. The Christian Aramaic of Palestine has been studied in the treatment of Schwally and Schulthess. In the Aramaic Appendix frequent references have been made not only to the grammars of Kautzsch and Dalman, but also to Krauss' Griechische u. Lateinische Lehnwörter im Talmud, and especially to the independent and valuable pamphlets of Scheftelowitz, Arisches im Alten Testament I and II. The Hebrew text of Ecclesiasticus has been used in the primary editions of Schechter, of Neubauer and Cowley, of Schechter and Taylor, of E. N. Adler, G. Margoliouth, I. Lévi and Gaster, as well as in the more compact editions of Strack and Levi, and the admirable facsimile issued by the Clarendon Press. Dillmann has been the main authority for Ethiopic, with resort, from time to time, to Prätorius and Charles. North Semitic inscriptions have yielded their material through the Corpus Inscription Semiticarum, the Répertoire d' Épigraphie Sémitique, the collections of de Vogüé, Euting and others, and especially, in recent years, by the aid of the Handbooks of Lidzbarski and G. A. Cooke, and the Glossary of S. A. Cook. The important Aramaic texts from Egypt, of the fifth century B. C., which have been first published by Cowley and Sayce, have also been utilized for the Aramaic Lexicon. The lexical matter of Southern Arabia has been gathered from the Corpus, from the inscriptions published by Osiander, M. Levy, Halévy, Mordtmann, D. H. Müller (including the discoveries of Langer), Glaser and others. Egyptian parallels have been adduced mainly from Wiedemann, Bondi, Erman, Steindorff and Spiegelberg, with occasional reference to Lepsius, Brugsch and Ebers. In all these departments, where active work is going on, fugitive materials have of course been found in many places, often scattered and sometimes remote.

It has been the purpose to recognize good textual emendations, but not to swell the list by conjectures which appeared to lack a sound basis. There is still much to do in textual criticism, and much which has been done since the printing of this Lexicon began would receive recognition if extensive revision were now possible. Among the critical discussions of the Hebrew text which have been frequently used are those of Geiger, Graetz, Wellhausen (Samuel, Minor Prophets), Perles, Oort, Cornell, (Ezekiel, Jeremiah), Beer (Job), Driver (Samuel), Burney (Kings), the several Parts of the Polychrome Bible, the Notes by translators in Kautzsch's Altes Testament, as well as those found in the Commentaries (especially the two recently completed series published under the editorship of Nowack and Marti, respectively, and the Old Testament volumes of the International Critical Commentary edited by Professors Briggs and Driver), and in many periodicals.

As to the arrangement of the work, the Editors decided at an early stage of their preparations to follow the Thesaurus, and the principal dictionaries of other Semitic languages, in classifying words according to their stems, and not to adopt the purely alphabetical order which has been common in Hebrew dictionaries. The relation of Semitic derivatives to the stems is such as to make this method of grouping them an obvious demand from the scientific point of view. It is true that practical objections to it may be offered, but these do not appear convincing. One is that it compels the editor to seem to decide, by placing each word under a given stem, some questions of etymology which in his own mind are still open. The number of such cases, however, is comparatively small, and the uncertainty can always be expressed by a word of caution. And even if the objection were much more important it would be better to assume the burden of it, in order to give students of Hebrew, from the outset, the immense advantage of familiarity with the structure and formative laws of the Hebrew vocabulary in their daily work. Another objection incidental to this arrangement is thought to be the increased difficulty of reference. This difficulty will diminish rapidly as students advance in knowledge, and by the practice of setting words formed by prefix or affix,— or otherwise hard for the beginner to trace, — a second time in their alphabetic place, with cross-references, it is hoped to do away with the difficulty almost entirely.

The Aramaic of the Bible has been separated from the Hebrew, and placed by itself at the end of the book, as a separate and subordinate element of the language of the Old Testament. This is a change from the older practice, which, since it was adopted here, has been made also by Siegfried and Stade, and by Buhl, and which the Editors believe will commend itself on grounds of evident propriety.

The question of adding an English-Hebrew Index has been carefully considered. With reluctance, it has been decided, for practical reasons, not to do so. The original limits proposed for the Lexicon have already been far exceeded, and the additional time, space and cost which an Index would require have presented a barrier which the Editors could not see their way to remove.

The work of preparing the Lexicon has been divided as follows: — the articles written by Professor Driver include all pronouns, prepositions, adverbs, conjunctions, interjections, and other particles, together with some nouns whose principal use (with or without a preposition) is adverbial; also some entire stems of which only one derivative is used adverbially; e. g., I. בדד, בלה (not בְּלִיַּעַל), יחד, I. כלל, מאם, בגע; but in the case of יוֹמָם, נֶגֶד, סָבִיב, I. עֵבֶר, מַעַל, and עַל (sub עלה), עִם, עַתּה, יען (sub ענה), among others, Professor Driver's responsibility does not go beyond the particular words. Under פָּנֶה he is responsible for the treatment of פְּנֵי with prepositions prefixed. He has prepared a few other articles, as well; e. g., אֱלִיל; II. בדד, הֶבֶל, תּוּשִׁיָּה ישׁה, תָּמִיד, מחד, מָעַט, תֹּהוּ.

In addition to articles for which he is exclusively responsible, he has read all the proofs, and made many suggestions.

The following articles have been prepared by Professor Briggs;2 they are in the main terms important to Old Testament Religion, Theology and Psychology, and words related to these : אֲבַדּוֹן, אדן, I. אהל, אוב, II. אוה, I. אול, I. און, אוד, אֵל, אֱלֹהִים, אֱלוֹהַּ, II. אלה, I. אמן, אפד, II. אדן, אדד, אשֶּׁה, אשׁם, אשׁד (but not אַשֶׁד); באשׁ, בָּגַד, I. בַּד, בושׁ, בחד, I. בטח, בין (not [בַּ֫יִן], בֵּין), בכד, בְּלִיַּעַל, בָּמָה, בעל בקשׁ, I. בדא, בְּרִית, ברך, I. בַּר, ברר, בשׂר, בתל; גאה, I. גאל, גָּבַהּ, גבר, גדל, גלה, גָּמָל (not גָּמָל), גצר; דבר, דין; הוה (incl. יהוה); זבח, I. זור, זנה, I. זנח, זעם, זרק; חגג, חוס, I. חזה, חטא, חיה, חכם, III. חלל, II. חלם, I. חנן (not חִנָּם), I. חסד, חסה, חפץ, חקק, חרה, I. חרם, I. חרף, חשׁב, חשֶׁן; טהר; טוב, טמא; I. יאל, ידה, יטב, יכח, יכר, יעד, יצר, ירא, ירה, ישׁע, ישׁר; כבד, כהן, כסה, כסל, כעס, I. כפר, כְּרוּבּ, כרע, כרת, לאד, לבב, ליץ, למד; I. מאם, מות, I. מחה, מִנְחָה, מעל, מַצָּה, מַצּוֹת, מרה, משׁח; I. משׁל; נאם, נבא, נדב, נדר, I. נחל, נחם, נסה, I. נסך, נפשׁ, I. נצח, נצל, I. נצר, נקה, נקם; סוֹד, סֶלָה, סלח; עבד, עוּד, II. עוה, III. עול, עזז, עלה (not מַ֫עַל, עַל), עלם, עמל, III. ענה, עדל; I. פאד, פדה, פלא, פלל, I. פכח, פשׁע; צבא, צדק, צוה; קדשׁ, קהל, I. קטר, II. קִינָה, קנא, I. קנה, קסם, I. קצף; רהב, רוח, רוע, I. רחם, I. רעע, רצה, רשׁע; שׂטן; שְׁאוֹל, שׁבת, שׁגג, שׁגה, שַׁדַּי, I. שָׁוְא, שׁוע, שׁחה, שׁיר, שׁכן, שׁלם, שׁפט, שׁקר, שׁרת; תמם, תעב, תעה.

Professor Brown is responsible for all articles and parts of articles not included in the above statements, as well as for the arrangement of the book and the general editorial oversight.

The work has consumed a much longer time than was anticipated at the outset. Twenty-three years have passed since it was undertaken, and nearly fifteen since the issue of the First Part, in June, 1891. Several causes have prevented an earlier com- pletion of it. Not only have the Editors been engaged in the active duties of their professorships, to which they were obliged to subordinate even so important a work as this, but they have more than once encountered serious interruptions from unforeseen circumstances of a personal nature. But, above all, the task itself has proved a greater one than they supposed it to be. The field has been large, the questions have been many, and often difficult, the consideration of usage, involved, as it is, with that of textual change and of fresh proposals in exegesis, has required an enormous amount of time. The study of etymologies is involved with masses of new material, rapidly increasing and as yet imperfectly published and digested; the critical discussion of the many related topics is of great extent and scattered through many books and periodicals. Even tentative conclusions can be reached often only through a weighing of careful facts yielded by prolonged investigation. And so the process has gone on year after year. The Editors are quite aware that the patience of purchasers has been put to a severe test. They would be glad to think that they may find in the result a partial compensation.

They know, indeed, that this result is far from perfect. Their most earnest care has not been able to exclude errors, the First Part, in particular, was printed under unfavourable conditions, and the years since the earlier Parts were issued have brought new knowledge at many points. It was not possible, nor would it have been just to owners of these Parts, to make considerable changes in the plates. Such changes have been limited, almost wholly, to obvious misprints, and occasional errors in citation. A selected and restricted list of some of the more important 'Addenda et Corrigenda' is appended to the volume. The Editors venture to hope that in the future they may be able to utilize the additional material which is now in their hands.

A list of abbreviations was issued with Part I. This has been now revised and enlarged, and it is hoped that by its aid the abbreviations made necessary by the fulness of reference, on the one hand, and the requirements of space, oh the other, will be quite intelligible.

Thanks are due to many scholars who have shown an interest in the work, and have contributed to its value by their suggestions. Prominent among these are Professor Hermann L. Strack, D. D., of Berlin, Professor George F. Moore, D. D., of Harvard University, and, for the Biblical Aramaic, Stanley A. Cook, Esq., of Cambridge, who has kindly read the proofs of the Aramaic Appendix, and made various additions and improvements. Dr. Eberhard Nestle, of Maulbronn, Professor Theodor Noldeke, of Strassburg, Henry Preserved Smith, D. D., of Amherst, Mass., Thomas Kelly Cheyne, D. D., of Oxford, Richard J. H. Gottheil, Ph. D., of Columbia University, New York, A. F. Kirkpatrick, D. D., and William Emery Barnes, D. D., of Cambridge, T. W. Davies, of the University College of North Wales, and Max Margolis, of the University of California, as well as Mr. H. W. Sheppard, of Bromley, Kent, and others, have laid the Editors under obligation by sending important comments or lists of corrections. Any further communications which may advance the cause of Hebrew scholarship, and promote a more thorough comprehension of the Old Testament Scriptures by supplying material for a possible future edition of the Lexicon, will be cordially welcomed.

It is impossible to bring this Preface to a close without especial reference to the relations between the Editors and their Publishers, in America and in England. The new Hebrew lexicon owes its origin to Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin and Company, of Boston, Mass., holders of the copyright of 'Robinson's Gesenius,' and long its publishers. The present Editors were authorized by them to undertake the work as a revision of that book. The late Mr. Henry O. Houghton, senior member of the firm, gave the project his especial attention, devoting much time to personal conference with the American editors, and making a visit to Oxford for a discussion of the matter with Professor Driver, and with the Delegates of the Clarendon Press, whose cooperation he received. It is a matter of deep regret that his life was not spared to see the completion of an enterprise in which he took so sympathetic an interest. We desire to record our appreciation of that interest, and of the considerate patience with which he, and the other members of this publishing-house, both before and since his death, have met the delays in finishing the work.

We are under similar obligations to the Delegates of the Clarendon Press. Since a share in this enterprise they have shown unfailing regard for it as a serious contribution to Hebrew learning. The Editors have many courtesies to acknowledge from successive Secretaries of the Clarendon Press, the late Master of Pembroke, Professor Barthomew Price, D. D., P. Lyttleton Gell, Esq., and C. Cannan, Esq.

We desire to express our thanks to the printers, to whose painstaking care in the composition.—made complicated and difficult by the great variety of type, including half a dozen fonts of foreign characters, in the correcting and in the press-work, the excellent appearance of the page is due, to Horace Hart, M. A., under whose direction they have worked, and not least to J. C. Pembrey, M. A., chief Oriental proof-reader, whose sharp eye little escapes, and whose personal enthusiasm is always concentrated upon the book in hand.

The merits of the work—if it have them—are dependent to a large degree on the hearty cooperation of all these, whose service we gratefully acknowledge.

In thus sending out into the world a book to which have gone many years of life and much persistent effort, our most earnest wish is that it shall be of real use to students, as a key with which they may unlock for themselves the rich treasure-house of the Old Testament.


March, 1906.

1 The eleventh German edition appeared in 1890, the year before the First Part of the present Lexicon was issued, under the editorship of Professors Mühlau and Volck, of Dorpat, who had prepared the eighth, ninth and tenth, also. The twelfth edition, in 1895, marked an era in the history of this useful dictionary, for with it began the careful editorship of Professor Frants Buhl, of Copenhagen, then at Leipzig, who issued the thirteenth edition, also, in 1899, and, after a very thorough revision, the fourteenth, in 1905. None of these editions had the exact scope of the present work, and none of them absolved the Editors in any degree from personal investigation of the entire material. The Editors have, however, derived much benefit from the German work, and especially from the contributions to it of Professor Buhl and his co-laborers, Professors Sociri and Zimmern. Unfortunately the present Lexicon, with the exception of the Appendix, was almost entirely in type when the fourteenth edition appeared, and adequate use of its new material, especially its extensive references to current philological literature, must be reserved for a later opportunity.

2 Except where words are pointed, or special restrictions made, it is generally to be understood that Professor Briggs is responsible for all words belonging to the stem whose letters are given. Proper names, and much of the etymological material, especially in the last two thirds of the book, form a standing exception, nor is Professor Briggs responsible for any part of the Biblical Aramaic.


A = Alexandrine MS. of Septuagint.
ABA = Abhandlungen d. Berliner Akademie d. Wissenschaften.
abs. = absolute.
abstr. = abstract.
Abulf = Abulfeda.
Ac = Academy (London).
acc. = accusative (direct obj. etc.).
acc. cogn. = acc. of cognate meaning with verb.
acc. pers. = acc. of person.
acc. rei = acc. of thing.
acc. to = according to.
act. = active.
adj. = adjective.
adv. = adverb.
AE = Aben Ezra.
AGG = Abhandlungen d. Göottinger Gesellsch. d. Wissenschaften.
AGI = Assyrian & English Glossary, Johns Hopkins University.
AJPh = American Journal of Philology.
AJSL = American Journal of Semitic Languages.
Ak = Akkadian.
al. = et aliter, and elsewhere; also et alii, and others.
Albr = K. Albrecht.
alttest(am). = alttestamentliche(r,s).
alw. = always.
Am = Amos.
Am.J.Sera.Lang. = AJSL, q.v. (which see)
AmRV = American RV.
Andr = Andreas. AndrM = Id. in Marti's Aram. Grammatik.
Aq = Aquila.
AR = Andover Review.
Ar. = Arabic.
Aram. = Aramaic, Aramaism.
Arch. = Archaeology.
ARSK = A. R. S. Kennedy.
As. = Assyrian.
Asrb. = Assurbanipal.
Asrn. = Assurbanipal.
A.T. = Altes Testament.
Ath. = Athenaeum (London).
Av. = Avesta, Avestan.
AV = Authorized Version.
AW = Abu'l Walid.
A&W = Abel & Winckler, Keilschrifttexte, Glossary.
ÄZ = Ägyptische Zeitschrift.
B = Vatican MS. of Septuagint.
Ba = J. Barth. BaErkl. d. Jes. = Id., Erklärung des Jesaias; BaES = Id., Etymologische Studien; BaNB = Id., Nominalbildung.
= K.C. Bahr.
Bab. = Babylonian.
Bacher = W. Bacher. BacherTerminol. = Id. Älteste Terminologie der Jüdischen Schriftauslegung.
Bachm = J. Bachmann.
Bäd = K. Bädeker. BädEg. = Bädeker's Egypt; BädPal. = Badeker's Palestine.
Bae = F. Baethgen. BaeRel., or BaeSem. Rel. = Beiträge zur Semitischen Religionsge schichte.
Baen = B. Baentsch.
Bähr = K. C. Bahr. BährSymb. = Bähr, Symbolik des Mosaischen Cultus.
BAL = C. Bezold, Babylonisch-Assyrische Literatur.
B. Aram. = Biblical Aramaic.
BarHeb(r) = Bar Hebraeus.
BAS = Beiträige zur Assyriologie u. Semit. Sprachwissenschaft, edd. Dl. & Hpt.
Bau(d) = W. von Baudissin. BauRel = Id., Studien zur Semitischen Religionsgeschichte; BauPriest. = Id., Geschichte des Alttestamentlichen Priesterthums.
Bd. = Bäd, q.v.
BD = Baer & Delitzach, Heb. Text.
Be = E. Bertheau.
beg. = beginning.
Behrm = G. Behrmann.
Belsh. = Belshazzar.
Benn = W. H. Bennett.
Benz = J. Benzinger. Benz Arch = Id., Hebräische Archaeologie.
Berggren = J. Berggren, Guide Français-Arabe Vulgaire.
Berliner T.Onk = A. Berliner, Trgum of Onkelos.
Berthol = A. Bertholet.
BeRy = Bertheau's Comm., ed. by Rywel.
Bev = A. A. Bevan.
Bez = C. Bezold.
BH = Biblical Hebrew.
Bi = G. Bickell.
Bl = F. Bleek.
Bla = J.S. Black.
Bloch Gl. = A. Bloch Phönizisches Glossar.
Bmg = A. J. Baumgartner.
Bo = S. Bchart. BoHieroz. = Id., Hierozoicon.
= F. Böttcher. Bö§, or Böi, ii = Id., Lehrbuch d. Hebr. Sprache; or BöÄ or NA. = Id., Ährenlese, or NeueÄhrenlese; BöInf = Id. De Inferis; BöProb. = Id. Proben alttest. Schrifterklärung.
Bondi = J. H. Bondi, Hebr. Lehnwörter in Hieroglyphischen. Texten.
BOR = Babylonian & Oriental Record.
Br = C. A. Briggs. BrGen. Intr. = Id., General Introduction to the Study of Holy Scripture; BrHex. = Id., Higher Criticism of the Hexateuch; Br MP = Id., Messianic Prophecy.
Braun de Vest. Sacerd. = Braunius, Vestitus, Sacerdotum Hebraeorum.
Brd = C. Bredenkamp.
Brock = C. Brockelmann, esp. = Id., Lexicon Syriacum.
Bu = K. Budde. BuRS = Id., Richter u. Samuel; BuUrg = Id., Die biblische Urgeschichte.
Buhl = Frants Buhl, esp. as editor of eds.12-14 of Gesenius's Handwörterbuch über das A. T.; BuhlG(eogr.), Geographic des Alten Palästina; BuhlEdom. = Id., Geschichte der Edomiter.
Bur = C. F. Burney.
Burckh = J. L. Bnrckhardt, esp. = Id., Travels in Syria, etc.
Bux = J. Buxtorf.
Bz = C. Bezold.
c. = circa, about; also cum, with.
Ca = C. P. Caspari.
Calv = John Calvin.
Cappad. = Cappadocia.
Castell = Edward Castell.
Castle = Castell.
caus. = causative.
CelsHierob. = O. Celsius, Hierobotanicon.
cf. = confer, compare.
1 Ch, 2 Ch = 1 & 2 Chronicles.
Champoll = J. F. Champollion.
Che = T. K. Cheyne. Che Founders = Id., Founders of Old Testament Criticism; Che(Heb.) Hpt = Id., Isaiah, in Hpt.'s Sacred Books of the O. T. ('Polychrome Bible'), Eng. Trans., and Heb. Text; CheIntr. Is. = Id., Introduction to lsaiah; CheOP = Id., Origin and Religious Contents of the Psalter.
ChGn = G. Smith's Chald. Genesis, Germ. ed.
Chron = Chronicles; also Chronicon (e.g., EusebChron.).
Chr-Pal. = Christian-Palestinian Aramaic.
ChWB = J. Levy,Chaldäisches Wörterbuch.
Cilic. = Cilician (Aramaic).
CIS = Corpus Inscript. Semiticarum.
ClGann = Clermont-Ganneau.
Co = C. H. Cornill.
coll. = collective.
Comm. = Commentary, Commentaries, Commentators.
comp. = compare, compares, comparative.
concr. = concrete.
conj. = conjecture(s); also conjunction.
consec. = consecutive.
constr. = construction.
contr. = contract, contracted.
Cook = Stanley A. Cook.
Cooke = G. A. Cooke.
COT = The Cuneiform Inscr. & the Old Test. (Eng. Trans, of KAT2, by O. H. Whitehouse).
Cowley = A. E. Cowley.
cp. = compare.
cpd. = compound, compounded.
CR = Comptes Rendus.
cstr. = construct.
Ct = Canticles = Song of Solomon.
Cuche = Id., Dictionnaire Arabe-Français.
D = Deuteronomist in Dt., in other books Deuteronomic author or redactor.
D (in BAram. Appendix) = G. Dalman, usu. = Id., Aramäisches-Neuhebräisches Wörterbuch; D§ = Id., Grammatik des Jüidisch-Aramäischen (2nd ed., 1905).
Da = A. B. Davidson. DaSynt. = Id., Hebrew Syntax.
Dalm = G. Dalman. DalmWB = Id., Aramäisches-Neuhebräisches Wörterbuch.
Dan. = Daniel.
DB = Dictionary of the Bible, ed. J. Hastings.
De = Franz Delitzsch. DeCompl. Var. = Id., Complutensische Varianten zum alttestamentlichen Texte; DeHL und Koheleth = Id., Comm. über das Hohelied und Koheleth.
del. = dele, strike out (also delet, delent).
Derenb = (usu.) H. Derenbourg; sts. J. Derenbourg; DerenbEtudes = Id. Etudes sur l'Épigraphie du Yémen.
DeW = W. M. L. De Wette.
DHM = D. H. Müller. DHMBS = Id., Burgen u. Schlösser Süd Arabiens; DHMEpigr. Denkm. (Ar., or aus Abess.) = Id., Epigraphische Denkmäler, or Epigr. Denkm. aus Arabien, or Epigr. Denkm. aus Abessinien; DHMHofmus. = Id., Inschriften des Hofmuseums; DHMSendsch. = Id., Inschriften von Sendschirli; DHMStud. = Id., Süidarabische Studien; DHMSMB = Id., Sab. Alterthümer in d. Kön. Museen zu Berlin.
Di = A. Dillmann.
Dict.Bib. = Smith, Dictionary of the Bible.
Dietr = F. E. C. Dietrich, esp. = Id., Abhandlungen für semit. Wortforachung.
Diod = Diodorus Siculus.
Dioscor = Dioscorides; DioscorDe Mater. Med. = Id., De Materia Medica.
div. = dixinum, divinitatis.
Dl = Friedrich Delitzsch. Dl§ = Id., Assyrian Grammar; DlH = Id., Hebrew & Assyrian; DlHWB = Id., Assyrisches Handwörterbuch; DlK = Id., Sprache d. Kossäer; DlL = Id., Assyrische Lesestücke; DlPa(r) = Id., Wo lag das Paradies? DlPr(ol) = Id., Prolegomena; Dl8 = Id., Assyrische Studien; DlW = Id., Assyrisches Wörterbuch.
DLZ = Deutsche Literatur-Zeitung.
Dn = Daniel.
Door = A. van Doorninck.
DoughtyArab. Des = C. M. Doughty, Travels in Arabia Deserta.
Dozy = R. Dozy, (usu.) Suppl. aux Diet. Arabes.
DPV = Deutscher Palästina-Verein.
Dr = S. R. Driver. Dr§ = Id., Hebrew Tenses; Drlntr = Id., Introduction to Literature of O. T.; DrPsalt. = Id., Psalter; DrSm, or Sam = Id., Text of Samuel.
Dr-Wh = Driver and White, Leviticus (Hpt.).
Dt = Deuteronomy.
Du = B. Duhm.
dub. = dubious, doubtful.
Dvd = David.
DWAk = Denkschriften der Wiener Akademie d. Wiss.
Dy = J. Dyserinck.
E = Elohist.
Eb = G. Ebers. EbAgM = Id., Aegypten u. d. Bücher Mosis; EbGs = Id., Durch Gosen zum Sinai.
EB(i) = Encyclopaedia Biblica, edd. Black and Cheyne.
EC = Ecclesiastes.
Ecclus = Ecclesiasticus; Ecclus, Oxford ed., = Heb. Fragments of Ecclesiasticus, edd. Neubauer and Cowley.
Eg. = Egyptian.
elsewh. = elsewhere.
EMey = Eduard Meyer, EMeyEntstehung = Id., Entstehung des Judenthums, = Id., Entstehung J., etc.
Enc.Brit. = Encyclopaedia Brittanica, 9th ed.
Ency(cl).Bib. = EB(i), q. v.
Eng.Tr(ans). = English Translation.
Ephr. = Ephraimitic source.
Ephr(em) = Ephrem Syrus.
Esar. = Esarhaddon.
Esdr. = Esdras.
esp. = especially.
Est = Esther.
E.T. = Eng. Trans.
Eth. = Ethiopic.
Eut = J. Euting. EutK = Id., Sammlund Karthag. Inschriften; EutNab = Id., Nabatäische Inschriften; EutSin = Id., Sinaitische Inschriften.
E.V. = English Version(s).
Ew = H. Ewald. Ew§ = Id., Heb. Gram.; EwG(esch.) = Id., Geschichte d. Volkes Israel; EwH = Id., History of Israel; (Eng. Trans, EwG(esch.)); EwJBW, or EwJahrb. = Id., Jahrb. d. bibl. Wissenschaft; EwBTh = Id., BiblischeTheologie; EwAnt = Id., Antiquities.
Ex = Exodus.
exc. = except.
exil. = exile.
Ez = Ezekiel.
Ezr = Ezra.
f., f = feminine.
f, or ff = and following.
F.B. = F. Brown.
fem. = feminine, feminae.
FFP = Flora and Fauna of Palestine (Survey).
Fi = Frederick Field, esp. = Id., Origenis Hexaploruin quae supersunt.
fig. = figurative.
fin. = finite, finitivum.
FJB = F.J. Bliss.
Fl = H.L. Fleischer. FlKl. Schr. = Id., Kleine Schriftcn.
Flora = Post, Flora of Syria.
fr. = from.
Fr = S. Frensdorff. FrMM = Id., Massora Magna.
Frä = S. Fränkel, and (usu.) = Id., Aramäische Freingwörter in Arabischen.
Frankenb(erg) = W. Frankenberg. FrankenbSpr = Id., Comm. Sprüche (ed. Nowack).
Frey = G. W. Freytag, Lex. Arab.; FreyProv. Ar. or Prov. = Id., Arabum Proverbia.
fs. = feminine singular.
= J. Fürst.
= Greek Version of the LXX.
GACooke = (usu.) G. A. Cooke, North Semitic Inscriptions; = GACookeInscr.
Gal = Galilee
Gann = Clermont-Ganneau.
GASm = George Adam Smith. GASmG(eogr.) = Id., Historical Geography of the Holy Land.
Gei = A. Geiger. GeiUrschr. = Id., Historical Geography of the Holy Land.
gent. = gentis, of a people, gentilicum.
geogr. = geography
Gerber(Verb. Denom.) = W T. Gerber, Verba Denominativa.
Ges = W. Gesenius. Ges§ = Id., Heb. Gram. ed. by Kautzsch; GesLbg = Id., Lehrgebäude d. Heb. Sprache.
Gesch. = Geschichte
Gf = K. H. Graf.
GFM = G. F. Moore.
GGA = Göttingsche Gelehrte Anzeigen
GGAbh. = Gött. Gel. Abhandlungen.
GGN = Gött. Nachrichten.
Gie = F. Giesebrecht.
Gi(nsb) = C. D. Ginsburg.
Gl(as) = E. Glaser; GlMSI = Id., Mittheilungen über Sab. Inschriften; GlSkizze = Id., Skizze der Geschichte u. Geographie Arabiens.
Gloss., gl. = glossary, rarely = a gloss
Gn = Genesis
Gr = H. Grätz.
Gray = G. B. Gray. GrayProp. N. = Id., Hebrew Proper Names.
Gu = H. Guthe, rarely Stan. Guyard. Gu§ = Guyard, Notes de lexicogr. assyrienne.
Guérin = V Guérin, Description géographique de la Palestine.
Guidi = Ignazio Guidi; GuidiDella Sede = Id., Della Sede Primitiva dei Popoli Semitici.
Gunk = H. Gunkel. GunkSchöp = Id., Schöpfung u. Chaos.
Guy = Stan. Guyard.
= Hebrew (Consonantal Text).
H = Code of Holiness
Haev = Haevernick
Hal. = J. Halévy. HalM = Id., Mélanges; HalDR = Id., Documents Religieux; HalMA = Id., Mission Archéol. dans le Yémen; HalÉS, or Et. Sab. = Id., Études Sabéennes.
Ḫamm = Ḫammurabi, esp. Id., Code of Laws.
HartmPlurilit.-bildungen = M. Hartmann, Pluriliteralbindungen in den semitischen Sprachen.
Hast = James Hastings. Hast(ings)DB, or Dict. Bib. = Dictionary of the Bible, ed. James Hastings.
Hb = Habakkuk.
Hbr = Hebraica.
HDerenb = H. Derenbourg.
Heb. = Hebrew
He(ngst) = E. Hengstenberg.
Herod(ot.) = Herodotus.
Hex = Hexateuch.
Hg = Haggai.
Hi = F. Hitzig.
Hilg = A. Hilgenfeld.
Hilpr = H. V. Hilprecht.
Hirz = L. Hirzel.
Ho = Hosea.
Hoffm = G. Hoffmann.
Hollenb = W. A. Hollenberg.
Holz = H. Holzinger.
Hom = F. Hommel. HomAA, or A. u. A, or Aufsätze = Id., Aufsätze u. Abhandlungen; HomChr, or Chest(om.) or Südar. Chrest. = Id., Südarabische Chrestomathie; HomNS = Id., Namen der Säugethiere.
Houb = C. F. Houbigant.
HP = Holmes & Parsons, Septuagint.
HPS = H. P. Smith.
Hpt = Paul Haupt. HptC = Id., Akkadische Sprache; HptD = Id., Über einen Dialekt der Sumerischen Sprache [GGN. 1880, Nr. 17]; HptE = Id., E. vowel; HptF = Id., Sumer. Familiengesetze; HptL = Id., Beiträge z. Ass. Lautlehre; HptN = Id., Nimrodepos; HptProl As. Gr. = Id., Prolegomena to an Assyrian Grammar; HptS = Id., Sintfluthbericht; HptT = Id., ASKT, Akkad. & Sum. Keilschrifttexte; Hpt, or Hpt (CheHpt, &c.) usu. = Sacred Books of the O.T., ed. Hpt (Polychrome Bible).
HSch = H. Schultz.
Hultsch = F. Hultsch, Griechische u. Römische Metrologie.
Hup = H. Hupfeld. HupRi, HupRiNow, Hup-Now = Id., Psalmen, edd. Riehm, Nowack.
Idiot. = Idioticon
Impf. = Imperfect.
Imv. = Imperative.
ind. = indirect.
indef. = indefinite.
Inf. = Infinitive.
infr., infr. = infra, below.
Inschr. = Inschrift, Inschriften.
inscr. = inscription(s); Inscr. of Carpentr. = Inscription of Carpentras.
intr(ans). = intransitive
i.q. = id quod, i.e. the same with.
Is = Isaiah
J = Jehovist.
JA = Journ. of the Royal Asiatic Society.
Jacob = G. Jacob. JacobAr(ab.) Dichter = Id., Studien in Arab. Dichtern; Id.Bed. Leben = Id., Leben der vorislamischen Beduinen.
J. Aram = Jewish-Aramaic (Jüdisch-Aramäische).
JAs = Journal Asiatique.
Jastr = Marcus Jastrow, Dict. of Targummim, Talmud, etc.; also Morris Jastrow, Jr.; JastrRel. Bab. = M. Jastrow, Jr., Religion of Babylonia and Assyria.
JAT. im Licht d. AO = A. Jeremias, Das Alte Tastament im Licht des Alten Orients.
Jb = Job.
JBL = Journal of Biblical Literature.
JBTh = Jahrbücher f. deutsche Theologie.
JDMich = J. D. Michaelis.
Je = Jeremiah.
Jen = P. Jensen. JenCosmol. = Id., Cosmologie der Babylonier.
Jer = Jerome; also Jerusalem.
Jerem = A. Jeremias.
Jerus. = Jerusalem.
Jes = Jesaias.
JHC = John Hopkins Univ. Circulars.
JHMich = J. H. Michaelis.
JLZ = Jenaer Lit.-Zeitung.
Jo = Joel.
Jon = Jonah.
Jos = Joshua.
JosAnt, JosBJ = Fl. Josephus, Antiquities, or Bell. Jud.
Joseph = Fl. Josephus (sts).
JosKi = Joseph Kimchi.
JPh(il). = Journal of Philology (Engl.).
JQ = Jewish Quarterly.
Jr = A. Jeremias, Leben nach dem Tode.
JThS = Journal of Theological Studies.
Ju = Judges.
Jud. = Judaea, Judaean.
Jüd. Zeitschr. = Monatsschrift für Gesch. u. Wiss. des Judenthums.
juss. = jussive.
K = E. Kautzsch (in B. Aram. Appendix). K§ = Id., Gramm. d. bibl. Aram; KAram. = Id., Aramaismen im A.T.
1K, 2K = 1 & 2 Kings.
Ḳam. = al-Ḳamus (Arab. Dict.), by al-Fīrūzābādi.
KAT2 = E. Schrader, Keilinschr. u. d. Alte Testament. KAT3 = Id., 3rd ed. by H. Winckler and H. Zimmern.
Kau = E. Kautzsch; Kau§ = Id., Gram. d. bibl. Aram; KauAram(aismen)(im AT) = KAram.; KauAT = Die Heiligen Schriften d. Alten Testaments, ed. Kau.; KauMN = Id., Mittheilungen u. Nachrichten d. DPV, 1904; Kau (SoKau, etc.) = KauAT.
Kay = W Kay.
KB = E. Schrader, Keilinschriftl. Bibliothek.
Ke = C. F. Keil.
Kenn = B. Kennicott.
Kennedy = (usu.) A. R. S. Kennedy.
KG = E. Schrader, Die Keilinschr. und die Geschichtsforschung.
kg. = king.
Kgs. = Kings.
Ki = David Kimchi (Qamchi).
Kiep(ert) = H. Kiepert.
Kirkp = A. F. Kirkpatrick.
Kit = R. Kittel. KitDi = Di, Jesaia, ed. Kit; KitGesch. (or Hist.) = Kit, Geschicthe der Hebräer (or Eng. Trans.).
Kit-Di = KitDi = Dillmann's Comm. (Isaiah), ed. by Kit.
Klo = A. Klostermann. KlS = Die Bücher Sam. u. d. Könige.
Kmp = A. Kamphausen.
Kn = A. Knobel.
KnudtzonAss. Gebete = J. A. Knudtzon, Assyrische Gebete an den Sonnengott.
= E. König. Köi, ii, iii = Id., Heb. Gram.; KöSynt. = Köiii; Kö§ = Id., Heb. Gram.; KöEinl = Id., Einleitung in d. A.T.
Köh = A. Köhler.
Kohut-Memorial = Studies in Memory of A. Kohut; Kohut-Studies = Id..
KostersHerstel = Het Herstel van Israël in het Perzische Tijdvak.
Kp = A. F. Kirkpatrick.
Krae = R. Kraetzschmar.
Krauss = S. Krauss, esp. Id., Griechische und Leteinische Lehnwörter im Talmud, etc.
Kremer = A. Kremer. KremerBeitr. = Id., Beträge.
Krochm = A. Krochmal.
KSGW = Königl. Sächs. Ak. d. Wiss.
Kt = Kethibh.
Kue = A. Kuenen. KueGes. Abh. = Id., Gesammelte Abhandlungen.
La = Lamentations.
Lag = P. de Lagarde. LagAgathang. = Id., Agathangelus; LagArm. Stud., or AS = Id., Armenische Studien; LagBN = Id., Bildung d. Nomina; LagM, or Mitth. = Id., Mittheilungen; LagNovi Psalt. spec. = Id., Novi Psalterii Specim.; LagOnom. = Id., Onomastica Sacra; LagOr = Id., Orientalia; LagPers. Stud. = Id. Persische Studien; LagSe = Id., Semitica; LagSy, or Sym(m.) = Id., Symmicta.
Landberg = C. Landberg. LandbergProv. = Id., Proverbes et Dictons.
Lane = E. W. Lane; usu. Id., Arabic Dictionary. Lane(Mod.) Egypt = Id., Modern Egyptians.
Lay = A. H. Layard.
l.c. = in loco citato [in the place cited].
LCB = Litterarisches Centralblatt.
Ldzb = M. Lidzbarski; usu. Id., Nordsemitische Inschriften.
Len = F. Lenormant. LenBeginnings = Id., Beginnings of History (Eng. Trans. of Origines de l'Histoire, I). LenOr(ig.) = Id., Les Origenes de l'Histoire.
(v.)Leng = C. von Lengerke.
Levy = Jacob Levy.
Lewy(Sem.)Fremdw(örter) = H. Lewy, Semitische Fremdwörter im Griechischen.
Liḥy = Liḥyanian (language).
LindbergVergl. Sem. Gram. = Lindverg, Vergleichende semitische Grammatik.
Linn = C. Linnaeus (Carl von Linné).
Littm = Enno Littmann.
Lo = R. Lowth.
loc. = local, locality.
Loft = W. K. Loftus, esp. LoftCS = Id., Chaldaea and Susiana.
LOPh = Literaturblatt für Orientalische Philologie.
Löw = J. Löw, Aramäische Pflanzennamen.
Lu = Martin Luther.
Luz(z) = S. D. Luzzatto.
Lv = Leviticus.
Lyon = D. G. Lyon.
Lzb = M. Lidzbarski (v. Ldzb). LzbEph(em). = Id., Ephemeris für semitische Epigraphik.
M, M§ = (in BAram, Appendix) K. Marti, Gram. d. bibl. Aram.
m. m. = masculine.
M-A = W. Muss-Arnolt. M-ACD= Id., Compendious Assyr. Dict.
Mal = Malachi.
Mand. = Mandean.
Marquart = J. Marquart. Marquart Id., Fundamente = Id., Fundamente israelitischer u. jüdischer Geschichte.
Marti = K. Marti.
Mas(s) = Masora.
MBAk = Monatsbericht d. Berliner Akad. d. Wissenschaften.
MDPV = Mittheilungen d. Deutschen Palästina-Vereins.
Me = A. Merx.
MeierWurzelWB = E. Meier, Hebräisches Wurzelwörterbuch.
Meinh = J. Meinhold.
Meissn = B. Meissner. MeissnSuppl. = Id., Supplement zum Assyr. Wörterb.
Mem. = Survey of W. Palestine, Memoirs.
metaph. = metaphor, metaphorically.
Mey = E. Meyer. MeyE. Jud., or Entstehung, or Enst. J., or Entstehung d. Jud., or Judenth(um) = Id., die Entstehung des Judenthums.
MGWJ = Monatsschr., q. v.
MI = Mesha-Inscription.
Mi = Micah.
Mich = J. D. Michaelis.
Min. = Minaean.
Mish(n). = Mishna.
mng. = meaning
Mo = F. E. Movers.
Monatsschr. = Monatschrift für Geschichte u. Wissen. d. Judenthums.
Mordt(m) = J. H. Mordtmann. MordtmHim. Inschr. = Id., Himjarische Ischriften.
mpl. = masculine plural
ms. = masculine singular.
MT = Massoretic Text.
Müll = A. Müller.
Muss-Arn = W. Muss-Arnolt.
MV11 (10,9,8) = Gesenius, Handwörterbuch über das A. T., edd. F. Mühlau &. W. Volck.
MVAG, or MVG = Mittheilungen d. Vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft.
n. = nomen, noun.
Na = Nahum.
Nab. = Nabataean.
Näg = C. W. E. Nägelsbach.
Nasar = Lexid. cod. Nasaraei, ed. M. Norberg.
NBab. = New Babylonian.
Nbr = A. Neubauer.
Ne = Nehemiah (rarely = E. Nestle).
Neb = Nebucbadnezzar.
Nes = E. Nestle. Nes§ = Id., Syriac Gram.; NesEg = Eigennamen; NesMarg. = Id., Marginalien u. Materialien.
NH = New (Late) Hebrew.
NHWB = Levy, Neuhebr. Wörterb.
NKZ = Neue kirchliche Zeitschrift.
= T. Nöldeke. No§ = Id., Syrische Grammatik; NöBeitr(äge), or BSW = Id., Beiträge z. semitischen Sprachwissenschaft; NöM = Id., Mandäische Grammatik; NöNS = Id., Neu-Syrische Grammatik; NöUntersuch. = Id., Untersuchungen zur Kritik des A.T.; NöZur Gram. d. class. Ar. = Id., Zur Grammatik des classischen Arab. (in Denkschriften der Wiener Akademie, 1896).
no. = number.
nom. = nomen, noun.
nom. coll = nom. collectivum, collective noun.
nom. unit = nom. unitatis, noun of singular or individual meaning.
Nor = E. Norris, Assyrian Dictionary.
NorbergLexid = Nasar, q.v.
Norzi = J. S. ben Abrabam Norzi.
Now = W. Nowack. NowArch. = Id., Hebräische Archäologie. = nomen proprium, proper name.
n. pr. loc. = n. pr. loci, proper name of place.
Nu = Numbers.
Ob = Obadiah.
obj. = object.
OBaktr. = Old Baktrian.
Oehl = Oehler.
oft. = often.
OH = Old Hebrew (Inscriptions).
OIran. = Old Iranian.
Ol = J. Olshausen. Ol§ = Id., Heb. Gram.
OLZ = Orientalische Literaturzeitung.
Onk = Targum of Onkelos.
Oort = H. Oort.
op. cit. = in opere citato [in the work cited].
OP(ers.) = Old Persian. OP also (in CheOP) = Origin of Psalter.
opp. = opposite, as opposed to, or contrasted with.
Opp(ert) = Jules Oppert.
Or(elli) = C. von Orelli.
Os = E. Osiander.
OT = Old Testament.
Öt = S. Öttli.
P = Priests' Code or Narrative.
Pal(est). = Palestine, Palestinian, etc.
Pal(m). = Palmyrene.
PAOS = Proceedings of the American Oriental Society.
Pap. = Papyrus.
part. = particle.
pass. = passive.
PB = Proceedings of Soc. of Bib. Archaeol.
Pe = J. J. S. Perowne.
PEF = Pal. Explor. Fund, usu. = Id., Quart. Statem'nt. PEFmem. = Mem., q. v.
Pei = F. E. Peiser.
Perles = F. Perles. Perles(Anal.) = Id., Analekten.
pers. = person, personae.
Pers. = Persian.
PESoc = American Palestine ExpIor. Society.
Pf. = Perfect.
Ph. = Phenician.
Phi = F. Philippi.
Pietschm = R. Pietschmann (also PietschmPhön(iz.), or Gesch. Ph.) = (usu.) = Id., Geschichte Phöniziens.
Pinsk = S. Pinsker.
pl. = plural.
PlinHN = Pliny, Hist. Nat.
POS = Proceedings Am. Orient. Soc.
Post = G. E. Post. PostFlora = Id., Flora of Syria.
postB = post-Biblical.
postex = post-exilic.
post-pos. = post-positive.
Pr = Proverbs.
Prä(t) = F. Prätorius. PräAmh. Spr. = Id., Amharische Sprache; Prä(t)Neue Beiträge = Id., Neue Beiträge zur Erklärung der Himjarischen Inschriften.
PRE = Herzog's Prot. Real-Encycl.
Presb.Rev. = Presbyterian Review (New York).
Prol = Prolegomena.
PS = R. Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus.
Ps = Psalms, Psalmen.
Ps.-J = Targum of Pseudo-Jonathan.
ψ = Psalm.
pt(cp). = participIe.
Ptol = Ptolemy (usu. Claudius Ptolemy).
punct. = punctuation.
Qor = Qoran.
Qr = Qerê.
qu. = question.
q.v. = quod vide, [which see].
qy. = query.
R = Redactor (e.g. in Hexateuch). RD = Deuteronomic redactor.
1 R, 2 R, 3 R,
4 R, 5 R
= Cuneiform Inscr. of Western Asia (H. Rawlinson).
RA = Revue Archéologique.
Ra = Rashi.
rd. = read.
rdg. = reading.
Rd'A = Revue d'Assyriologie.
Re = E. Renan.
Reckend = S. Reckendorf.
refl. = reflexive.
RÉJ = Revue des Études Juives.
Rel = H. Reland.
RÉS = Répertoire d'Épigraphie Sémitique.
Rev.Bib. = Revue Biblique.
Ri = E. Riehm. RiHWB = Handwörterb. d. bibl. Alterth.
= E. Rödiger.
Rob = E. Robinson. RobBR = Id., Biblical Researches.
Rob-Ges. = Gesenius, Hebrew and English Lexicon, translated by E. Robinson.
Roo = T. Roorda.
Rosenm = E. F. C. Rosenmüller.
Rothst = W. Rothstein.
RP2(1) = Records of Past, 2nd (1 st) Series.
RS = W. Robertson Smith. RSOTJC = Id., Old Testament in Jewish Church; RSProph. = Id., Prophets of Israel; RSK = Id., Kinship & Marriage in Early Arabia; RSSem = Id., Religion of Semites.
RTr = Recueil de Travaux.
Ru = Ruth.
RV = Revised Version.
RVm = Revised Version margin.
RWB = Bibl. Realwörterbuch, ed. Winer.
Ry = V. Ryssel.
= Syriac Version. Jerus = Chr-Pal. Evang. (Lagarde).
1 S, 2 S = 1 & 2 Samuel.
Saad = Arabic Version of Saadya.
Sab. = Sabean.
SabDenkm = Sabäische Denkmäler, edd. Mordtmann & Müller.
SAC = Stanley A. Cook; esp. = Id., Aramaic Glossary.
Sam. = Samaria, Samaritan (rarely = Samuel).
Sarg = Sargon.
SahoSpr = Saho Sprache.
SASm = S. A. Smith.
Say = A. H. Sayce. SayMonuments = Id., Higher Criticism and the Monuments; SayRel. Bab. = Id., Religion of Babylonia.
SB = SBAk.
SBAk = Sitzungsbericht d. Berl. Akademie der Wissenschaften.
S-CPap. = A. H. Sayce and A. E. Cowley, Aram. Papyri.
Sch = F. W. Schultz.
Scheft = Scheftelowitz, usu. = Scheft, Arisches im A.T.; ScheftMGWJ = Id., Monatsschrift für Gesch. u. Wiss. d. Jud. (1903); also pub. separately (Scheftii).
SchenkelBT = D. Schenkel, Bibel-Lexicon.
Schl(ottm) = C. Schlottmann.
Schr = E. Schrader.
Schröd, Schroed = P. Schröder, esp. = Id., Phönizische Sprache.
Schu = A. Schultens.
Schü = E. Schürer, Gesch. des jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi.
Schulth = F. Schulthess. SchulthHom. Wurz. = Id., Homonymische Wurzeln im Syrischen; SchultLex. = Id., Lexicon d. Chr. Pal. Aramäischen.
Schw = F. Schwally. Schw(alIy)Idiot. = Id., Idioticon d. Chr. Pal.
SeetzenReise = Seetzen, Reisen durch Syrien.
seld. = seldom, rare.
Sen = Sennacherib.
Sendsch. = Sendschirli (Zinjirli).
sf. = suffix, or with suffix.
sg. = singular.
Shlm = Shalmaneser II.
SI = Siloam Inscription.
si vera l. = si vera lectio, [if true reading].
Siegf = C. Siegfried.
sim. = simile.
SK = Studien u. Kritiken.
Skr. = Sanskrit.
Sm = R. Smend (rarely = Samuel). SmRel. Gesch. = Smend, Alttestamentliche Religionsgeschichte; SmListen = Id., Listen der Bücher Esra u. Nehemia.
So(c) = A. Socin.
Spi = W. Spitta. Spi§ = Gram. d. arab. Vulg. Dial.
Spieg = F. Spiegel; SpiegAPK = Id., Altpersische Keilinschriften.
Spiegelb = W. Spiegelberg.
Spr = Sprache, or Sprüche.
sq. = followed by.
SS = C. Siegfried u. B. Stade, Hebräisches Wörterbuch.
st. = status, state, stative.
St = H. Steiner.
Sta = B. Stade; Sta§ = Id., Heb. Gram.; StaG(esch.) = Id., Geschichte des Volkes Israel.
Steind = G. Steindorff.
Steuern = C. Steuernagel.
Str = H. L. Strack. Str§ = Id., Gram. d. bibl. Aram.
Strassm = the following.
Strm = J. Strassmaier. StrmAV = Id., Alphabet. Verzeichniss.
sts. = sometimes.
Stu = G. Studer.
Stud. Bib. = Studia Biblica.
subst. = substantive.
Sum(er). = Sumerian.
supr., supr. = supra, above.
Surenh = W. Surenhusius, Mishna.
Survey, SurveyWP = Survey of Western Palestine (PEF); SurveyEP = Id., of Eastern Palestine.
Symm = Symmachus. Syr. = Syriac.
= Targum
t. (following a number) = times.
TA = TeI el-Amarna; also Taj-al-'Arūs (Arab. Dict.).
Talm = Talmud.
Tariff = Palmyrene Tariff Inscription.
TB, TBA. = Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology.
TelAm. = TA, q. v.
Tg = Targum TgJer = Targum of Jerusalem, etc.
Th(e) = O. Thenius.
Theod = Theodotion.
Theophr = Theophrastus; TheophrHist. Plant. = Id., Historia de Plantis.
Thes = W. Gesenius, Thesaurus Linguae Hebraeae.
ThesAdd. = Id., Additions by E. Rödiger.
ThT = Theologisch Tijdschrift.
ThLB = Theol. Literaturblatt.
ThLZ = Theol. Literaturzeitung.
Tiele = C. P. Tiele.
Tiph. = Tiphel (rare conjugation).
To = Tobler.
TP = Tiglath-Pileser.
Tpg. = Topography.
Tr = Transactions.
tr. = translate (translated, translation); rarely = transitive.
trans(it). = transitive.
Tristr = H. B. Tristram. TristrNHB = Id., Natural History of the Bible; TristrFFP = Id., Fauna and Flora of Palestine (Survey, Memoirs).
TSBA = TB, q. v.
TSWt = Theol. Studien aus Württemberg.
TTijdschr = ThT, q. v.
Tu = F. Tuch.
txt. = text.
txt.err. = textual error.
Univ.Pa.Exp. = Bab. Exped. of the Univ. of Pennsylvania.
usu. = usual, usually.
= Vulgate.
v = verse; v. = vide, see.
van d. H. = E. van der Hooght, Heb. text of O.T.
var. = variant reading.
VB = Variorum Bible.
vb. = verb.
vdVelde = C. W. M. van de Velde; esp. Id., Reis door Syrie en Palestina; E. T., Narrative of a Journey through Syria and Palestine; vdVeldeMem(oir) = Id., Memoir to accompany Map of Holy Land constructed by C. W. M. van de Velde.
vid. = vide, see.
vir. = viri, of a man.
Vog = C. J. M. de Vogüé, Syrie Centrale. VogPalm. = Id..
VogelstLandwirthsch. = H. Vogelstein, Landwirthschaft in Palästina zur Zeit der Mišnâh.
VOJ = Vienna Oriental Journal (= Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes).
Vrss = Old Versions.
Vulg.Ar. = Vulgar Arabic.
Vullers = J. A. Vullers, Lexicon Persico-Latinum.
W = W. Wright. WAG = Id., Arabic Gram.; WSG, or CG = Id., Comp. Semit. Gram.
Wahrm = A. Wahrmund, esp. Id, Arab. Handwörterbuch.
WAW = W. Aldis Wright.
wd. = word, also would.
We = J. Wellhausen. WeBl.Einl. = Id., Bleek's Einleitung in d. A.T.; WeComp. = Id., Composition des Hexateuchs; Wede gent. = Id., De gentibus et familiis Iudaeis; WeHeid. (or, Arab. Heidenthum) = Id., Reste Arabischen Heidenthums (= WeSkizzen iv. 2nd. ed.); WeHist. = Id., History of Israel (trans. by Black); WeProl. = Id., Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels; WeSkizzen = Id., Skizzen und Vorarbeiten.
Weissb = F. H. Weissbach.
Wetzst = J. G. Wetzstein.
wi. = with, construed with.
Wied = A. Wiedemann. WiedSamml Id., Sammlung Altägyptische Wörter.
Wild(eb) = G. Wildeboer.
Wilkinson(Anc.) Egypt. = J. G. Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians.
WisdLt = Wisdom Literature.
Wkl = H. Winckler.
WMM = W. Max Müller. WMMAs. u. Eur(op.), or Asien = Id., Asien u. Europa.
Wr = C. H. H. Wright.
= A. Wünsche.
WZKM = VOJ, q. v.
Xen(oph). = Xenophon.
Z = Zeitschrift.
ZA = Zeitschr. für Assyriologie.
ZAW = Z. f. alttest. Wissenschaft.
Zc = Zechariah.
Zehnpf = R. Zehnpfund.
ZEthnol. = Zeitschrift für Ethnologie.
Zim = H. Zimmern. ZimBP = Id., Babylonische Busspsalmen.
Zinj. = Inscriptions of Zinjirli (N. Syria).
ZK = Z. für Keilschriftforschung.
ZKM = Z. f. Kunde d. Morgenlandes.
ZKW, or ZKWL = Z. f. kirchl. Wiss. und kirchl. Leben.
ZLuth.Th. = Z. für Lutherische Theologie.
ZMG = Z. d. deutsch. MorgenIänd. Gesellschaft.
= O. Zöckler.
Zp = Zephaniah.
ZPV = Z. d. deutsch. Pal.-Vereins.
ZVölkerpsych. = Z. für Völkerpsychologie.
ZWTh., or ZWiss.Th. = Z. für Wissenschaftliche Theologie.
< over a letter = the accented (tone-)syllable.
† prefixed, or added, or both = 'All passages cited.
> = the preceding is to be preferred to the following.
< = the following is to be preferred to the preceding.
|| parallel, of words (synonymous or contrasted); also of passages; sometimes = 'see parallel,' or 'so also in parallel.
= equivalent = equals.
+ plus = denotes often that other passages, etc., might be cited. So also where the forms of verbs, nouns, and adjectives are illustrated by citations, near the beginning of articles; while 'etc.' in such connexions commonly indicates that other forms of the word occur, which it has not been thought worth while to cite.
[ ] = the form, etc., enclosed, is not actually found, or that the Hebrew offers no positive proof; e.g.
[Scripture Reference] = Indicates that the original BLB Scripture reference which uses LXX versification has been replaced with modern versification. The referenced Strong's number will be in the bracketed Scripture reference.
n. [m.] = the noun is presumably masculine, though the gender is not clearly exhibited in Hebrew.
= root or stem.
׳ = sign of abbreviation (in Hebrew words).
א׳ often = אֱלֹהִים Elohim.
וגו׳ = et caetera (in Hebrew quotations).
י׳ = Yahweh.
^ beneath a Hebrew word = any accent that occasions vowel change.
NOTE. Scripture citations in small superior letters and figures, following n.m. or n.f., refer to some passage where the gender is exhibited. Small inferior figures following Hebrew words, names of conjugations, etc., denote the (approximate) number of occurrences of such words, conjugations, etc.
BLB Searches
Search the Bible
Search KJV

Advanced Options

Other Searches

Multi-Verse Retrieval
Search KJV

Let's Connect
Daily Devotionals

Blue Letter Bible offers several daily devotional readings in order to help you refocus on Christ and the Gospel of His peace and righteousness.

Daily Bible Reading Plans

Recognizing the value of consistent reflection upon the Word of God in order to refocus one's mind and heart upon Christ and His Gospel of peace, we provide several reading plans designed to cover the entire Bible in a year.

One-Year Plans

Two-Year Plan


The Blue Letter Bible ministry and the BLB Institute hold to the historical, conservative Christian faith, which includes a firm belief in the inerrancy of Scripture. Since the text and audio content provided by BLB represent a range of evangelical traditions, all of the ideas and principles conveyed in the resource materials are not necessarily affirmed, in total, by this ministry.

Donate Contact

Blue Letter Bible study tools make reading, searching and studying the Bible easy and rewarding.

Blue Letter Bible is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization