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Synonyms of the New Testament :: Richard C. Trench

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cvii.

[This concluding article contains contributions toward the illustration of some other synonyms, for a fuller dealing with which I have not found place in this volume.]

  1. ἐλπίς, πίστις.—Augustine (Eachirid. 8): ‘Est itaque fides et malarum rerum et bonarum: quia et bona creduntur et mala; et hoc fide bonâ, non malâ. Est etiam fides et praeteritarum rerum, et praesentium, et futurarum. Credimus enim Christurn mortuum; quod jam praeteriit: credimus sedere ad dexteram Patris; quod nunc est: credimus venturum ad judicandum; quod futurum est. Item fides et suarum rerum est et alienarum. Nam et se quisque credit aliquando esse coepisse, nec fuisse utique sempiternum; et alios, atque alia; nec solum de aliis hominibus multa, quae ad religionem pertinent, verum etiam de angelis credimus. Spes autem non nisi bonarum rerum est, nec nisi futurarum, et ad eum pertinentium qui earum spem gerere perhibetur. Quae cum ita sint, propter has caussas distinguenda erit fides ab spe, sicut vocabulo, ita et rationabili differentiâ, Nam quod adtinet ad non videre sive quae creduntur, sire quae sperantur, fidei speique commune est.’ Compare Bishop O’Brien, Nature and Effects of Faith, p. 304; and Zöch, De Vi ac Notione Vocis ἐλπίς in N. T.
  2. πρεσβύτης, γέρων.—Augustine (Enarr. in Ps. lxx. 18): ‘Senecta et senium discernuntur a Graecis. Gravitas enim post juventutem aliud nomen habet apud Graecos, et post ipsam gravitatem veniens ultima aetas aliud nomen habet; nam πρεσβύτης dicitur gravis, et γέρων senex. Quid autem in Latinâ linguâ duorum istorum nominum distinctio deficit, de senectute ambo sunt positae, senecta et senium. Scitis autem esse duas aetates.’ Cf. Quoest. in Gen. i. 70.
  3. φρέαρ, πηγή.—Augustine (in Joh. Evang. Tract. 15): ‘Omnis puteus [φρέαρ], fons [πηγή]; non omnis fons puteus. Ubi enim aqua de terrâ manat et usui praebetur haurientibus, fons dicitur; sed si in promptu et superficie sit, fons tantum dicitur: si autem in alto et profundo sit, ita puteus vocatur, ut fontis nomen non amittat.’
  4. σχίσμα, αἵρεσις.—Augustine (Con. Crescon. Don. ii. 7): ‘Schisma est recens congregationis ex aliquâ sententiarum diversitate dissensio; haeresis autem schisma inveteratum.’ Cf. Jerome (in Ep. ad Tit. iii. 10): ‘Inter haeresim et schisma hoc esse arbitrantur, quod haeresis perversum dogma habeat; schisma propter episcopalem dissensionem ab Ecclesiâ separetur; quod quidem in principio aliquâ ex parte intelligi queat. Caeterum nullum schisma non sibi aliquam confingit haeresim, ut recte ab ecclesiâ, recessisse videatur.’ And very admirably Nevin (Antichrist, or the Spirit of Sectarianism): ‘Heresy and schism are not indeed the same, but yet they constitute merely the different manifestations of one and the same disease. Heresy is theoretic schism; schism is practical heresy. They continually run into one another, and mutually complete each other. Every heresy is in principle schismatic; every schism is in its innermost constitution heretical’
  5. μακροθυμία, πραότης.—Theophylact (in Gal. v. 22): μακροθυμία πραότητος ἐν τούτῳ δοκεῖ παρὰ τῇ γραφῇ διαφέρειν, τῷ τὸν μὲν μακρόθυμον πολὺν ὄντα ἐν φρονήσει, μὴ ὀξέως ἀλλὰ σχολῇ ἐπιτιθέναι τὴν προσήκουσαν δίκην τῷ πταίοντι· τὸν δὲ πρᾶον ἀφιέναι παντάπασιν.
  6. ἀνάμνησις, ὑπόμνησις.—Ammonius: ἀνάμνησις ὅταν ἔλθῃ εἰς μνήμην τῶν παρελθόντων· ὑπόμνησις δὲ ὅταν ὑφ᾽ ἑτέρου εἰς τοῦτο προαχθῇ [2 Tim. 1:5; 2 Pet. 1:13; 3:1].
  7. φόρος, τέλος, —Grotius: ‘φόροι tributa sunt quae ex agris solvebantur, atque in ipsis speciebus fere pendebantur, id est in tritico, ordeo, vino et similibus. Vectigalia vero sunt quae Graece dicuntur τέλη, quae a publicanis conducebantur et exigebantur, cum tributa a suceptoribus vel ab apparitoribus praesidum ac praefectorum exigi solerent.’
  8. τύπος, ἀλληγορούμενον.—Rivetus (Proef. ad Ps. xlv.): ‘Typus est cum factum aliquod a Vetere Testamento accersitur, idque extenditur praesignificâsse atque adumbrâsse aliquid gestum vel gerendum in Novo Testamento; allegoria vero cum aliquid sive ex Vetere sive ex Novo Testamento exponitur atque accommodatur novo sensu ad spiritualem doctrinam, sive vitae institutionem.’
  9. λοιδορέω, βλασφημέω.—Calvin (Comm. in N. T.; 1 Cor. 4:12): ‘Notandum est discrimen inter haec duo participia, λοιδορούμενοι καὶ βλασφημούμενοι. Quoniam λοιδορία est asperior dicacitas, quae non tantum perstringit hominem, sed acriter etiam mordet, famamque apertâ contumeliâ sugillat, non dubium est quin λοδορεῖν sit maledicto tanquam aculeo vulnerare hominem; proinde reddidi maledictis lacessiti. Βλασφημία est apertius probrum, quum quispiam graviter et atrociter proscinditur.’
  10. ὀφείλει, δεῖ.—Bengel (Gnomon, 1 Cor. 11:10): ‘ὀφείλει notat obligationem, δεῖ necessitatem; illud morale est, hoc quasi physicum; ut in vernaculâ, wir sollen und müssen.’
  11. πραΰς, ἡσύχιος.—Bengel (Ib. 1 Pet. 3:4): ‘Mansuetus [πραΰς], qui non turbat: tranquillus [ἡσύχιος], qui turbas aliorum, superiorum, inferiorum, aequalium, fert placide. . . . Adde, mansuetus in affectibus: tranquillus in verbis, vultu, actu.’
  12. τεθεμελιωμένος, ἑδραῖος.—Bengel (Ib. Col. 1:23): ‘τεθεμελιωμένοι, affixi fundamento; ἑδραῖοι, stablies, firmi intus. Illud metaphoricum est, hoc magis proprium: illud importat majorem respectum ad fundamentum quo sustentantur fideles; sed ἑδραῖοι, stabiles, dicit internum robur, quod fideles ipsi habent; quemadmodum aedificium primo quidem fundamento recte solideque inniti, deinde veto suâ etiam mole probe cohaerere et firmiter consistere debet.’
  13. θνητός, νεκρός.—Olshausen (Opusc. Theoll. p. 195): ‘νεκρός vocatur subjectum, in quo sejunctio corporis et animae facta est: θνητός, in quo fieri potest.’
  14. ἔλεος, οἰκτιρμός.—Fritzsche (in Rom. 9:15): ‘Plus significari vocabulis ὁ οἰκτιρμός et οἰκτείρειν quam verbis ὁ ἔλεος et ἐλεεῖν recte veteres doctores vulgo statuunt. Illis enim cum ἵλαος, ἱλάομαι, et ἱλάσκομαι, his cum ιὅ et οἶκτος cognatio est. ‘Ο ἔλεος aegritudinem benevole ex miseriâ alterius haustam denotat, et commune vocabulum est ibi collocandum, ubi misericordiae notio in genere enuntianda est; ὁ οἰκτιρμός aegritudinem ex alterius miseriâ susceptam, quae fletum tibi et ejulatum excitet, h. e. magnam ex alterius miseriâ aegritudinem, miserationem declarat.’
  15. ψιθυριστής, καταλάλος.—Fritzsche (in Rom. 1:30): ‘ψιθυρισταί sunt susurrones, h. e. clandestini delatores, qui ut inviso homini noceant quae ei probro sint crimina tanquam in aurem alicui insusurrant. Contra καταλάλοι omnes ii vocantur, qui quae alicujus famae obsint narrant, sermonibus celebrant, divulgant maloque rumore aliquem differunt, sive id malo animo faciant, ut noceant, sive temere neque nisi garriendi libidine abrepti. Qui utrumque vocabulum ita discriminant, ut ψιθυριστάς clandestinos calumniatores, καταλάλους calumniatores qui propalam criminentur explicent, arctioribus quam par est limitibus voc. καταλάλος circumscribunt, quum id vocabulum calumniatorem nocendi cupidum suâ vi non declaret.’
  16. ἄχρηστος, ἀχρεῖος.—Tittmann: ‘Omnino in voce ἄχρηστος non inest tantum notio negativa quam vocant (οὐχρήσιμον), sed adjecta ut plerumque contraria τοῦ πονηροῦ, quod non tantum nihil prodest, sed etiam damnum affert, molestum et damnosum est. Apud Xenophontem, Hiero, i. 27, γάμος ἄχρηστος non est inutilis, sed molestissimus, et in Oeconom. viii. 4. Sed in voce ἀχρεῖος per se nulla inest nota reprehensionis, tantum denotatrem aut hominem quo non opus est, quo supersedere possumus, unnöthig, unent. behrlich [Thucydides, i. 84; ii. 6], quae ipsa tamen raro sine vituperatione dicuntur.’
  17. νομικός, νομοδιδάσκαλος, γραμματεύς.—Meyer (in Matt. 22:85): ‘νομικός, ein Rechtskundiger, ἐπιστήμων τῶν νόμων (Photius, Lexicon; Plutarch, Sull. 36); ein Mosäischer Jurist; νομοδιδάσκαλο bezeichnet einen solchen als Lehrer; γραμματεύς ist ein weiterer Begriff als νομικός; Schriftkundiger, dessen Beruf das Studium und die Auslegung der heiligen Schrift ist.’

[The following Strong's numbers apply to this section:G1680,G4102,G1088,G4246,G4077,G5421,G139,G4978,G3115,G4236,G364,G5280,G5056,G5411,G238,G5179,G3058,G987,G1163,G3784,G2272,G4239,G1476,G2311,G2349,G3498,G1656,G3628,G2637,G5588,G888,G890,G1122,G3544,G3547.]

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The Blue Letter Bible ministry and the BLB Institute hold to the historical, conservative Christian faith, which includes a firm belief in the inerrancy of Scripture. Since the text and audio content provided by BLB represent a range of evangelical traditions, all of the ideas and principles conveyed in the resource materials are not necessarily affirmed, in total, by this ministry.

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