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Lexicon :: Strong's H8199 - šāp̄aṭ

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Part of Speech
Root Word (Etymology)
A primitive root
Dictionary Aids

TWOT Reference: 2443

Strong’s Definitions

שָׁפַט shâphaṭ, shaw-fat'; a primitive root; to judge, i.e. pronounce sentence (for or against); by implication, to vindicate or punish; by extenssion, to govern; passively, to litigate (literally or figuratively):— avenge, × that condemn, contend, defend, execute (judgment), (be a) judge(-ment), × needs, plead, reason, rule.

KJV Translation Count — Total: 203x

The KJV translates Strong's H8199 in the following manner: judge (v) (119x), judge (n) (60x), plead (11x), avenged (2x), condemn (2x), execute (2x), judgment (2x), defend (1x), deliver (1x), miscellaneous (3x).

KJV Translation Count — Total: 203x
The KJV translates Strong's H8199 in the following manner: judge (v) (119x), judge (n) (60x), plead (11x), avenged (2x), condemn (2x), execute (2x), judgment (2x), defend (1x), deliver (1x), miscellaneous (3x).
  1. to judge, govern, vindicate, punish

    1. (Qal)

      1. to act as law-giver or judge or governor (of God, man)

        1. to rule, govern, judge

      2. to decide controversy (of God, man)

      3. to execute judgment

        1. discriminating (of man)

        2. vindicating

        3. condemning and punishing

        4. at theophanic advent for final judgment

    2. (Niphal)

      1. to enter into controversy, plead, have controversy together

      2. to be judged

    3. (Poel) judge, opponent-at-law (participle)

Strong’s Definitions [?](Strong’s Definitions Legend)
שָׁפַט shâphaṭ, shaw-fat'; a primitive root; to judge, i.e. pronounce sentence (for or against); by implication, to vindicate or punish; by extenssion, to govern; passively, to litigate (literally or figuratively):— avenge, × that condemn, contend, defend, execute (judgment), (be a) judge(-ment), × needs, plead, reason, rule.
STRONGS H8199: Abbreviations
שָׁפַט 185 verb judge, govern (Late Hebrew in derivatives; Phoenician שפט = שֹׁפֵט, also in proper name; Punic sufet Lzb381; Biblical Aramaic שָֽׁפְטִין; Assyrian šapâtu (t = ת), synonym dânu (דִּין), judge DlWB 684, šipṭu (ט), probably judgment [and šapiṭu, captain?] JenZA iv (1889), 278 f.; on possible connection with Arabic bdb104701 see NöZMG xi (1886), 724; on usage of verb See FergusonJBL viii (1888), 130 ff.); —
Qal Perfect 3rd person masculine singular שׁ׳ Judges 16:31 +, etc.; Imperfect 3rd person masculine singular יִשְׁפֹּט Genesis 16:5, יִשְׁפּוֹט Isaiah 11:3; 3rd person masculine plural יִשְׁפְּטוּ Genesis 31:53 +, יִשְׁפּ֫וּטוּ Exodus 18:26 (Ki יִשְׁפּוּט֫וּ; compare Ges§ 47g), etc.; Infinitive absolute שָׁפוֺט Genesis 19:9; construct שְׁפֹט Ruth 1:1, לִשְׁפֹּט Exodus 8:13 +, etc.; Imperative שְׁפָטֿ Proverbs 31:9, שָׁפְטָה Psalm 82:8; Lamentations 3:59, שִׁפְטוּ Isaiah 1:17 +, שְׁפֹ֑טוּ Zechariah 7:9, etc.; Participle שֹׁפֵט 1 Samuel 3:13 +, etc.; —
1. act as law-giver, judge, governor (giving law, deciding controversies and executing law, civil, religious, political, social; both early and late):
a. of God only, שֹׁפֵט כל הארץ Genesis 18:25 (J), || מֶלֶךְ,מְחֹקֵק Isaiah 33:22.
b. of man, Genesis 19:9 (twice in verse) (J), Moses deciding cases Exodus 18:13 (E), making known statutes Exodus 18:16 (E); so his assistants Exodus 18:22; Exodus 18:22; Exodus 18:26; Exodus 18:26 (E), || Deuteronomy 1:16; of שׁפטי ישׂראל Numbers 25:5 (executioners); י׳ set שֹׁפְטִים over Israel Judges 2:16, 18; 2 Samuel 7:11 = 1 Chronicles 17:10, to deliver Israel, שׁפט ישׂדאל Judges 3:10; Judges 4:4; Judges 10:2,39 times Judges; 1 Samuel 4:18; 1 Samuel 7:15, 16, 17; 2 Kings 23:22, compare 1 Samuel 7:6; Participle שֹׁפֵט as substantive also Judges 2:17, 18, 19; 1 Samuel 8:1, 2; 2 Kings 23:22; שֹׁפְטֵי יִשׂ׳ 1 Chronicles 17:6 (|| 2 Samuel 7:7 שִׂבְטֵי), בִּימֵי שְׁפֹט הַשֹּׁפְטִים Ruth 1:1 (twice in verse) (compare מוֺשִׁיעִים Obadiah 21); שׁפט, || מֶלֶךְ 1 Samuel 8:5, 6, 20; Hosea 7:7; Hosea 13:10; שֹׁפֵט ישׂראל Micah 4:14 [Micah 5:1] (= king); king judges people 1 Kings 3:9 (twice in verse) = 2 Chronicles 1:10; 1 Kings 15:5 2 Chronicles 26:21; 1:11; absolute 1 Kings 7:7; Isaiah 16:5; || שׂרים Exodus 2:14 (E) Amos 2:3; Zephaniah 3:3; || יוֺעַץ Isaiah 1:26; Job 12:17, compare Isaiah 3:2; שֹׁפְטֵי אָרֶץ Isaiah 40:23 (|| רוֺזְנִים), Proverbs 8:16 (|| שׂרים), Psalm 2:10; Psalm 148:11 (|| מלכים); שׁפטינו אשׁר שׁפטונו Daniel 9:12 (twice in verse).
2. specifically decide controversy, discriminate between persons, in civil, political, domestic and religious questions:
a. of God Psalm 82:1: וּבֵין ֗֗֗ שׁ׳ Genesis 16:5 (J; domestic), Judges 11:27 (twice in verse); 1 Samuel 24:13; 1 Samuel 24:16 (all of war), Ezekiel 34:20 (relig.); with לְ ֗֗֗ בֵּין Ezekiel 34:17, 22 (religious); with בֵּנֵינוּ Genesis 31:53 (E; domestic), Isaiah 2:4 = Micah 4:3 (of war); with בְּ 2 Chronicles 20:12 (war); with accusative 1 Kings 8:32 2 Chronicles 6:23; Ecclesiastes 3:17, condemning wicked and justifying righteous Job 21:22 (|| ידע), Job 23:7; absolute Exodus 5:21 (J) Job 22:13; צֶדֶק שׁ׳ Jeremiah 11:20; Psalm 9:5; י׳ is שׁוֺפֵט צַדִּיק Psalm 7:12.
b. of man, וּבֵין ֗֗֗ בֵּין שׁ׳ Exodus 18:16 (E) Numbers 35:24 (P) Deuteronomy 1:16 (all civil), Isaiah 5:3 (relig.); with accusative Leviticus 19:15 (H) Deuteronomy 25:1 (all civil), Ezekiel 20:4 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 22:2 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 23:36; מִשְׁפָּט שׁ׳ Deuteronomy 16:18; 1 Kings 3:28 (Solomon); במשׁפטים Ezekiel 44:24, with ל 2 Chronicles 19:6; absolute Ezekiel 44:24; Isaiah 11:3 (king); influenced by bribes Micah 3:11; Micah 7:3; Job 9:24; Absalom desires to decide cases as שֹׁפֵט 2 Samuel 15:4 (implying lack of such in his time); according to 2 Chronicles 19:5. 6 Jehoshaphat set up שׁפטים, apparently for the first as judges in this specific sense; code of Deuteronomy recognizes them: הַשֹּׁפֵט declares הַמִּשְׁפָּט דְּבַר Deuteronomy 17:9, 12; Deuteronomy 25:2; שׁפטים + שֹׁטְרִים Deuteronomy 16:18; 1 Chronicles 23:4; 1 Chronicles 26:29; Joshua 8:33 (+ זְקֵנִים), Joshua 23:2; Joshua 24:1 (D; both + זקנים, רָאשִׁים), + זקנים only Deuteronomy 21:2; Ezra 10:14, + כֹּהֲנִים Deuteronomy 19:17, 18, שׂרים 2 Chronicles 1:2.
3. execute judgment:
a. discriminating, of man only, משׁפט אמת Zechariah 7:9, מֵישָׁרִים שׁ׳ Psalm 58:2 judge uprightly; משׁפט שׁלום Zechariah 8:16, צֶדֶק Proverbs 31:9, עָוֶל Psalm 82:2.
b. vindicating, with accusative:
(1) subject God, יתום Psalm 10:18, accusative of person Psalm 26:1; Psalm 43:1; Psalm 58:12 (read שֹׁפְטָם for שׁפטים), משׁפט שׁ׳ Lamentations 3:59; מִיַּד vindicate by delivering from hand of 1 Samuel 24:16; 2 Samuel 18:19, 31; שָׁפְטֵנִי כְּ צִדְקִי י׳ Psalm 7:9; שָׁפְטֵנִי כְּ צִדְקְךָ Psalm 35:24.
(2) subject man, with accusative יתום Isaiah 1:17, 23; דל(יםׅ Isaiah 11:4; Proverbs 29:14; Psalm 82:3; עניי עם Psalm 72:4; משׁפט אביונים Jeremiah 5:28.
c. condemning and punishing,
(1) God כְּדַרְכֵי פ׳ according to ways of Ezekiel 7:3, 8; Ezekiel 18:30; Ezekiel 24:14; Ezekiel 33:20; Ezekiel 36:19; במשׁפטים Ezekiel 7:27; Ezekiel 23:24; משׁפטי נאפות Ezekiel 16:38 (= Ezekiel 23:45 of human judges); with accusative 1 Samuel 3:13; Psalm 51:5; Ezekiel 11:10, 11; Ezekiel 21:35; Ezekiel 35:11.
(2) of man, only שֹׁפְטֵי נַפְשׁוֺ Psalm 109:31 and Ezekiel 23:45 above, probably also Psalm 141:6 (corrupt).
d. at theophanic advent for final judgment: God is שֹׁפֵט Psalm 50:6; Psalm 75:8; שׁפט הארץ Psalm 94:2, with accusative בא לשׁפט הארץ Psalm 96:13 = 1 Chronicles 16:33; Psalm 98:9; הארץ שׁ׳ Psalm 82:8; כל הנוים Joel 4:12; עמים Psalm 67:5; תבל Psalm 9:9; Psalm 96:13 = Psalm 98:9; מישׁרים שׁ׳ Psalm 75:3.
Niph. Perfect 1st person singular נִשְׁפַּטְתִּי Ezekiel 20:36 + 4 times; Imperfect 1st person singular אִשָּׁפֵט Ezekiel 20:36; אִשָּֽׁפְטָה 1 Samuel 12:7, etc.; Infinitive construct חִשָּׁפֵט 2 Chronicles 22:8; suffix הִשָּֽׁפְטוֺ Psalm 37:33; Psalm 109:7; Participle נִשְׁפָּט Isaiah 59:4 + 4 times; —
1. reciprocal, (Ges§ 51 d), enter into controversy, plead: with אֵת with, of God Jeremiah 2:35; Ezekiel 17:20; Ezekiel 20:35, 36 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 38:22; of man 1 Samuel 12:7 (+ וְאַגִּידָה לָכֶם Greek Version of the LXX We Dr BuHpt Now), Proverbs 29:9; with עִם, of God Joel 4:2, of man 2 Chronicles 22:8; with ל, of God Jeremiah 25:31; יחד נשׁ׳ Isaiah 43:26 have controversy together; באשׁ by fire (of God) Isaiah 66:16; באמונה Isaiah 59:4.
2. passive be judged, Psalm 9:20; Psalm 37:33; Psalm 109:7.
Pô`el Participle suffix מְשֹׁפְטִי (dubious; Hi Bu מִשְׁפָּטִי), = my apponent-at-law (Ges§ 55 b) Job 9:15; + Zf Job 3:15; Psalm 109:31 We and others.

See related Aramaic BDB entry H8200.
Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon, Unabridged, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights reserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com

BLB Scripture Index of Brown-Driver-Briggs


16:5; 16:5; 18:25; 19:9; 19:9; 31:53; 31:53


2:14; 5:21; 8:13; 18:13; 18:16; 18:16; 18:22; 18:22; 18:26; 18:26; 18:26




25:5; 35:24


1:16; 1:16; 16:18; 16:18; 17:9; 17:12; 19:17; 19:18; 21:2; 25:1; 25:2


8:33; 23:2; 24:1


2:16; 2:17; 2:18; 2:18; 2:19; 3:10; 4:4; 10:2; 11:27; 16:31


1:1; 1:1

1 Samuel

3:13; 3:13; 4:18; 7:6; 7:15; 7:16; 7:17; 8:1; 8:2; 8:5; 8:6; 8:20; 12:7; 12:7; 24:13; 24:16; 24:16

2 Samuel

7:7; 7:11; 15:4; 18:19; 18:31

1 Kings

3:9; 3:28; 7:7; 8:32; 15:5

2 Kings

23:22; 23:22

1 Chronicles

16:33; 17:6; 17:10; 23:4; 26:29

2 Chronicles

1:2; 1:10; 1:11; 6:23; 19:5; 19:6; 19:6; 20:12; 22:8; 22:8; 26:21




3:15; 9:15; 9:24; 12:17; 21:22; 22:13; 23:7


2:10; 7:9; 7:12; 9:5; 9:9; 9:20; 10:18; 26:1; 35:24; 37:33; 37:33; 43:1; 50:6; 51:5; 58:2; 67:5; 72:4; 75:3; 75:8; 82:1; 82:2; 82:3; 82:8; 82:8; 94:2; 96:13; 96:13; 98:9; 98:9; 109:7; 109:7; 109:31; 109:31; 141:6; 148:11


8:16; 29:9; 29:14; 31:9; 31:9




1:17; 1:17; 1:23; 1:26; 2:4; 3:2; 5:3; 11:3; 11:3; 11:4; 16:5; 33:22; 40:23; 43:26; 59:4; 59:4; 66:16


2:35; 5:28; 11:20; 25:31


3:59; 3:59


7:3; 7:8; 7:27; 11:10; 11:11; 16:38; 17:20; 18:30; 20:4; 20:35; 20:36; 20:36; 20:36; 22:2; 23:24; 23:36; 23:45; 23:45; 24:14; 33:20; 34:17; 34:20; 34:22; 35:11; 36:19; 38:22; 44:24; 44:24




7:7; 13:10






3:11; 4:3; 5:1; 7:3




7:9; 7:9; 8:16

Word / Phrase / Strong's Search

Strong's Number H8199 matches the Hebrew שָׁפַט (šāp̄aṭ),
which occurs 204 times in 182 verses in the WLC Hebrew.

Page 1 / 4 (Gen 16:5–1Sa 8:1)

Unchecked Copy BoxGen 16:5 -

Then Sarai said to Abram, “You are responsible for my suffering![fn] I put my slave in your arms,[fn] and when she saw that she was pregnant, I became contemptible to her. May the LORD judge between me and you.”

Unchecked Copy BoxGen 18:25 -

“You could not possibly do such a thing: to kill the righteous with the wicked, treating the righteous and the wicked alike. You could not possibly do that! Won’t the Judge of the whole earth do what is just? ”

Unchecked Copy BoxGen 19:9 -

“Get out of the way! ” they said, adding, “This one came here as an alien, but he’s acting like a judge! Now we’ll do more harm to you than to them.” They put pressure on Lot and came up to break down the door.

Unchecked Copy BoxGen 31:53 -

“The God of Abraham, and the gods of Nahor ​— ​the gods of their father[fn] ​— ​will judge between us.” And Jacob swore by the Fear of his father Isaac.

Unchecked Copy BoxExo 2:14 -

“Who made you a commander and judge over us? ” the man replied. “Are you planning to kill me as you killed the Egyptian? ”

Then Moses became afraid and thought, “What I did is certainly known.”

Unchecked Copy BoxExo 5:21 -

“May the LORD take note of you and judge,” they said to them, “because you have made us reek to Pharaoh and his officials ​— ​putting a sword in their hand to kill us! ”

Unchecked Copy BoxExo 18:13 -

The next day Moses sat down to judge the people, and they stood around Moses from morning until evening.

Unchecked Copy BoxExo 18:16 -

“Whenever they have a dispute, it comes to me, and I make a decision between one man and another. I teach them God’s statutes and laws.”

Unchecked Copy BoxExo 18:22 -

“They should judge the people at all times. Then they can bring you every major case but judge every minor case themselves. In this way you will lighten your load,[fn] and they will bear it with you.

Unchecked Copy BoxExo 18:26 -

They judged the people at all times; they would bring the hard cases to Moses, but they would judge every minor case themselves.

Unchecked Copy BoxLev 19:15 -

“Do not act unjustly when deciding a case. Do not be partial to the poor or give preference to the rich; judge your neighbor fairly.

Unchecked Copy BoxNum 25:5 -

So Moses told Israel’s judges, “Kill each of the men who aligned themselves with Baal of Peor.”

Unchecked Copy BoxNum 35:24 -

“the assembly is to judge between the person who kills someone and the avenger of blood according to these ordinances.

Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 1:16 -

“I commanded your judges at that time: Hear the cases between your brothers, and judge rightly between a man and his brother or his resident alien.

Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 16:18 -

“Appoint judges and officials for your tribes in all your towns the LORD your God is giving you. They are to judge the people with righteous judgment.

Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 17:9 -

“You are to go to the Levitical priests and to the judge who presides at that time. Ask, and they will give you a verdict in the case.

Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 17:12 -

“The person who acts arrogantly, refusing to listen either to the priest who stands there serving the LORD your God or to the judge, must die. You must purge the evil from Israel.

Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 19:17 -

“the two people in the dispute are to stand in the presence of the LORD before the priests and judges in authority at that time.

Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 19:18 -

“The judges are to make a careful investigation, and if the witness turns out to be a liar who has falsely accused his brother,

Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 21:2 -

“your elders and judges are to come out and measure the distance from the victim to the nearby cities.

Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 25:1 -

“If there is a dispute between men, they are to go to court, and the judges will hear their case. They will clear the innocent and condemn the guilty.

Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 25:2 -

“If the guilty party deserves to be flogged, the judge will make him lie down and be flogged in his presence with the number of lashes appropriate for his crime.

Unchecked Copy BoxJos 8:33 -

All Israel ​— ​resident alien and citizen alike ​— ​with their elders, officers, and judges, stood on either side of the ark of the LORD’s covenant facing the Levitical priests who carried it. Half of them were in front of Mount Gerizim and half in front of Mount Ebal, as Moses the LORD’s servant had commanded earlier concerning blessing the people of Israel.

Unchecked Copy BoxJos 23:2 -

So Joshua summoned all Israel, including its elders, leaders, judges, and officers, and said to them, “I am old, advanced in age,

Unchecked Copy BoxJos 24:1 -

Joshua assembled all the tribes of Israel at Shechem and summoned Israel’s elders, leaders, judges, and officers, and they presented themselves before God.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 2:16 -

The LORD raised up judges, who saved them from the power of their marauders,

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 2:17 -

but they did not listen to their judges. Instead, they prostituted themselves with other gods, bowing down to them. They quickly turned from the way of their ancestors, who had walked in obedience to the LORD’s commands. They did not do as their ancestors did.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 2:18 -

Whenever the LORD raised up a judge for the Israelites, the LORD was with him and saved the people from the power of their enemies while the judge was still alive. The LORD was moved to pity whenever they groaned because of those who were oppressing and afflicting them.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 2:19 -

Whenever the judge died, the Israelites would act even more corruptly than their ancestors, following other gods to serve them and bow in worship to them. They did not turn from their evil practices or their obstinate ways.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 3:10 -

The Spirit of the LORD came on him, and he judged Israel. Othniel went out to battle, and the LORD handed over King Cushan-rishathaim of Aram to him, so that Othniel overpowered him.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 4:4 -

Deborah, a prophetess and the wife of Lappidoth, was judging Israel at that time.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 10:2 -

Tola judged Israel twenty-three years and when he died, was buried in Shamir.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 10:3 -

After him came Jair the Gileadite, who judged Israel twenty-two years.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 11:27 -

“I have not sinned against you, but you are doing me wrong by fighting against me. Let the LORD who is the judge decide today between the Israelites and the Ammonites.”

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 12:7 -

Jephthah judged Israel six years, and when he died, he was buried in one of the cities of Gilead.[fn]

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 12:8 -

Ibzan, who was from Bethlehem, judged Israel after Jephthah

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 12:9 -

and had thirty sons. He gave his thirty daughters in marriage to men outside the tribe and brought back thirty wives for his sons from outside the tribe. Ibzan judged Israel seven years,

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 12:11 -

Elon, who was from Zebulun, judged Israel after Ibzan. He judged Israel ten years,

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 12:13 -

After Elon, Abdon son of Hillel, who was from Pirathon, judged Israel.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 12:14 -

He had forty sons and thirty grandsons, who rode on seventy donkeys. Abdon judged Israel eight years,

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 15:20 -

And he judged Israel twenty years in the days of the Philistines.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 16:31 -

Then his brothers and his father’s whole family came down, carried him back, and buried him between Zorah and Eshtaol in the tomb of his father Manoah. So he judged Israel twenty years.

Unchecked Copy BoxRth 1:1 -

During the time[fn] of the judges, there was a famine in the land. A man left Bethlehem in Judah with his wife and two sons to stay in the territory of Moab for a while.

Unchecked Copy Box1Sa 3:13 -

“I told him that I am going to judge his family forever because of the iniquity he knows about: his sons are cursing God,[fn] and he has not stopped them.

Unchecked Copy Box1Sa 4:18 -

When he mentioned the ark of God, Eli fell backward off the chair by the city gate, and since he was old and heavy, his neck broke and he died. Eli had judged Israel forty years.

Unchecked Copy Box1Sa 7:6 -

When they gathered at Mizpah, they drew water and poured it out in the LORD’s presence. They fasted that day, and there they confessed, “We have sinned against the LORD.” And Samuel judged the Israelites at Mizpah.

Unchecked Copy Box1Sa 7:15 -

Samuel judged Israel throughout his life.

Unchecked Copy Box1Sa 7:16 -

Every year he would go on a circuit to Bethel, Gilgal, and Mizpah and would judge Israel at all these locations.

Unchecked Copy Box1Sa 7:17 -

Then he would return to Ramah because his home was there, he judged Israel there, and he built an altar to the LORD there.

Unchecked Copy Box1Sa 8:1 -

When Samuel grew old, he appointed his sons as judges over Israel.

Search Results Continued...

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2. LOAD PAGE 2 1Sa 8:2–Psa 50:6

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