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Lexicon :: Strong's H8199 - šāp̄aṭ

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Part of Speech
Root Word (Etymology)
A primitive root
Dictionary Aids

TWOT Reference: 2443

Strong’s Definitions

שָׁפַט shâphaṭ, shaw-fat'; a primitive root; to judge, i.e. pronounce sentence (for or against); by implication, to vindicate or punish; by extenssion, to govern; passively, to litigate (literally or figuratively):— avenge, × that condemn, contend, defend, execute (judgment), (be a) judge(-ment), × needs, plead, reason, rule.

KJV Translation Count — Total: 203x

The KJV translates Strong's H8199 in the following manner: judge (v) (119x), judge (n) (60x), plead (11x), avenged (2x), condemn (2x), execute (2x), judgment (2x), defend (1x), deliver (1x), miscellaneous (3x).

KJV Translation Count — Total: 203x
The KJV translates Strong's H8199 in the following manner: judge (v) (119x), judge (n) (60x), plead (11x), avenged (2x), condemn (2x), execute (2x), judgment (2x), defend (1x), deliver (1x), miscellaneous (3x).
  1. to judge, govern, vindicate, punish

    1. (Qal)

      1. to act as law-giver or judge or governor (of God, man)

        1. to rule, govern, judge

      2. to decide controversy (of God, man)

      3. to execute judgment

        1. discriminating (of man)

        2. vindicating

        3. condemning and punishing

        4. at theophanic advent for final judgment

    2. (Niphal)

      1. to enter into controversy, plead, have controversy together

      2. to be judged

    3. (Poel) judge, opponent-at-law (participle)

Strong’s Definitions [?](Strong’s Definitions Legend)
שָׁפַט shâphaṭ, shaw-fat'; a primitive root; to judge, i.e. pronounce sentence (for or against); by implication, to vindicate or punish; by extenssion, to govern; passively, to litigate (literally or figuratively):— avenge, × that condemn, contend, defend, execute (judgment), (be a) judge(-ment), × needs, plead, reason, rule.
STRONGS H8199: Abbreviations
שָׁפַט 185 verb judge, govern (Late Hebrew in derivatives; Phoenician שפט = שֹׁפֵט, also in proper name; Punic sufet Lzb381; Biblical Aramaic שָֽׁפְטִין; Assyrian šapâtu (t = ת), synonym dânu (דִּין), judge DlWB 684, šipṭu (ט), probably judgment [and šapiṭu, captain?] JenZA iv (1889), 278 f.; on possible connection with Arabic bdb104701 see NöZMG xi (1886), 724; on usage of verb See FergusonJBL viii (1888), 130 ff.); —
Qal Perfect 3rd person masculine singular שׁ׳ Judges 16:31 +, etc.; Imperfect 3rd person masculine singular יִשְׁפֹּט Genesis 16:5, יִשְׁפּוֹט Isaiah 11:3; 3rd person masculine plural יִשְׁפְּטוּ Genesis 31:53 +, יִשְׁפּ֫וּטוּ Exodus 18:26 (Ki יִשְׁפּוּט֫וּ; compare Ges§ 47g), etc.; Infinitive absolute שָׁפוֺט Genesis 19:9; construct שְׁפֹט Ruth 1:1, לִשְׁפֹּט Exodus 8:13 +, etc.; Imperative שְׁפָטֿ Proverbs 31:9, שָׁפְטָה Psalm 82:8; Lamentations 3:59, שִׁפְטוּ Isaiah 1:17 +, שְׁפֹ֑טוּ Zechariah 7:9, etc.; Participle שֹׁפֵט 1 Samuel 3:13 +, etc.; —
1. act as law-giver, judge, governor (giving law, deciding controversies and executing law, civil, religious, political, social; both early and late):
a. of God only, שֹׁפֵט כל הארץ Genesis 18:25 (J), || מֶלֶךְ,מְחֹקֵק Isaiah 33:22.
b. of man, Genesis 19:9 (twice in verse) (J), Moses deciding cases Exodus 18:13 (E), making known statutes Exodus 18:16 (E); so his assistants Exodus 18:22; Exodus 18:22; Exodus 18:26; Exodus 18:26 (E), || Deuteronomy 1:16; of שׁפטי ישׂראל Numbers 25:5 (executioners); י׳ set שֹׁפְטִים over Israel Judges 2:16, 18; 2 Samuel 7:11 = 1 Chronicles 17:10, to deliver Israel, שׁפט ישׂדאל Judges 3:10; Judges 4:4; Judges 10:2,39 times Judges; 1 Samuel 4:18; 1 Samuel 7:15, 16, 17; 2 Kings 23:22, compare 1 Samuel 7:6; Participle שֹׁפֵט as substantive also Judges 2:17, 18, 19; 1 Samuel 8:1, 2; 2 Kings 23:22; שֹׁפְטֵי יִשׂ׳ 1 Chronicles 17:6 (|| 2 Samuel 7:7 שִׂבְטֵי), בִּימֵי שְׁפֹט הַשֹּׁפְטִים Ruth 1:1 (twice in verse) (compare מוֺשִׁיעִים Obadiah 21); שׁפט, || מֶלֶךְ 1 Samuel 8:5, 6, 20; Hosea 7:7; Hosea 13:10; שֹׁפֵט ישׂראל Micah 4:14 [Micah 5:1] (= king); king judges people 1 Kings 3:9 (twice in verse) = 2 Chronicles 1:10; 1 Kings 15:5 2 Chronicles 26:21; 1:11; absolute 1 Kings 7:7; Isaiah 16:5; || שׂרים Exodus 2:14 (E) Amos 2:3; Zephaniah 3:3; || יוֺעַץ Isaiah 1:26; Job 12:17, compare Isaiah 3:2; שֹׁפְטֵי אָרֶץ Isaiah 40:23 (|| רוֺזְנִים), Proverbs 8:16 (|| שׂרים), Psalm 2:10; Psalm 148:11 (|| מלכים); שׁפטינו אשׁר שׁפטונו Daniel 9:12 (twice in verse).
2. specifically decide controversy, discriminate between persons, in civil, political, domestic and religious questions:
a. of God Psalm 82:1: וּבֵין ֗֗֗ שׁ׳ Genesis 16:5 (J; domestic), Judges 11:27 (twice in verse); 1 Samuel 24:13; 1 Samuel 24:16 (all of war), Ezekiel 34:20 (relig.); with לְ ֗֗֗ בֵּין Ezekiel 34:17, 22 (religious); with בֵּנֵינוּ Genesis 31:53 (E; domestic), Isaiah 2:4 = Micah 4:3 (of war); with בְּ 2 Chronicles 20:12 (war); with accusative 1 Kings 8:32 2 Chronicles 6:23; Ecclesiastes 3:17, condemning wicked and justifying righteous Job 21:22 (|| ידע), Job 23:7; absolute Exodus 5:21 (J) Job 22:13; צֶדֶק שׁ׳ Jeremiah 11:20; Psalm 9:5; י׳ is שׁוֺפֵט צַדִּיק Psalm 7:12.
b. of man, וּבֵין ֗֗֗ בֵּין שׁ׳ Exodus 18:16 (E) Numbers 35:24 (P) Deuteronomy 1:16 (all civil), Isaiah 5:3 (relig.); with accusative Leviticus 19:15 (H) Deuteronomy 25:1 (all civil), Ezekiel 20:4 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 22:2 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 23:36; מִשְׁפָּט שׁ׳ Deuteronomy 16:18; 1 Kings 3:28 (Solomon); במשׁפטים Ezekiel 44:24, with ל 2 Chronicles 19:6; absolute Ezekiel 44:24; Isaiah 11:3 (king); influenced by bribes Micah 3:11; Micah 7:3; Job 9:24; Absalom desires to decide cases as שֹׁפֵט 2 Samuel 15:4 (implying lack of such in his time); according to 2 Chronicles 19:5. 6 Jehoshaphat set up שׁפטים, apparently for the first as judges in this specific sense; code of Deuteronomy recognizes them: הַשֹּׁפֵט declares הַמִּשְׁפָּט דְּבַר Deuteronomy 17:9, 12; Deuteronomy 25:2; שׁפטים + שֹׁטְרִים Deuteronomy 16:18; 1 Chronicles 23:4; 1 Chronicles 26:29; Joshua 8:33 (+ זְקֵנִים), Joshua 23:2; Joshua 24:1 (D; both + זקנים, רָאשִׁים), + זקנים only Deuteronomy 21:2; Ezra 10:14, + כֹּהֲנִים Deuteronomy 19:17, 18, שׂרים 2 Chronicles 1:2.
3. execute judgment:
a. discriminating, of man only, משׁפט אמת Zechariah 7:9, מֵישָׁרִים שׁ׳ Psalm 58:2 judge uprightly; משׁפט שׁלום Zechariah 8:16, צֶדֶק Proverbs 31:9, עָוֶל Psalm 82:2.
b. vindicating, with accusative:
(1) subject God, יתום Psalm 10:18, accusative of person Psalm 26:1; Psalm 43:1; Psalm 58:12 (read שֹׁפְטָם for שׁפטים), משׁפט שׁ׳ Lamentations 3:59; מִיַּד vindicate by delivering from hand of 1 Samuel 24:16; 2 Samuel 18:19, 31; שָׁפְטֵנִי כְּ צִדְקִי י׳ Psalm 7:9; שָׁפְטֵנִי כְּ צִדְקְךָ Psalm 35:24.
(2) subject man, with accusative יתום Isaiah 1:17, 23; דל(יםׅ Isaiah 11:4; Proverbs 29:14; Psalm 82:3; עניי עם Psalm 72:4; משׁפט אביונים Jeremiah 5:28.
c. condemning and punishing,
(1) God כְּדַרְכֵי פ׳ according to ways of Ezekiel 7:3, 8; Ezekiel 18:30; Ezekiel 24:14; Ezekiel 33:20; Ezekiel 36:19; במשׁפטים Ezekiel 7:27; Ezekiel 23:24; משׁפטי נאפות Ezekiel 16:38 (= Ezekiel 23:45 of human judges); with accusative 1 Samuel 3:13; Psalm 51:5; Ezekiel 11:10, 11; Ezekiel 21:35; Ezekiel 35:11.
(2) of man, only שֹׁפְטֵי נַפְשׁוֺ Psalm 109:31 and Ezekiel 23:45 above, probably also Psalm 141:6 (corrupt).
d. at theophanic advent for final judgment: God is שֹׁפֵט Psalm 50:6; Psalm 75:8; שׁפט הארץ Psalm 94:2, with accusative בא לשׁפט הארץ Psalm 96:13 = 1 Chronicles 16:33; Psalm 98:9; הארץ שׁ׳ Psalm 82:8; כל הנוים Joel 4:12; עמים Psalm 67:5; תבל Psalm 9:9; Psalm 96:13 = Psalm 98:9; מישׁרים שׁ׳ Psalm 75:3.
Niph. Perfect 1st person singular נִשְׁפַּטְתִּי Ezekiel 20:36 + 4 times; Imperfect 1st person singular אִשָּׁפֵט Ezekiel 20:36; אִשָּֽׁפְטָה 1 Samuel 12:7, etc.; Infinitive construct חִשָּׁפֵט 2 Chronicles 22:8; suffix הִשָּֽׁפְטוֺ Psalm 37:33; Psalm 109:7; Participle נִשְׁפָּט Isaiah 59:4 + 4 times; —
1. reciprocal, (Ges§ 51 d), enter into controversy, plead: with אֵת with, of God Jeremiah 2:35; Ezekiel 17:20; Ezekiel 20:35, 36 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 38:22; of man 1 Samuel 12:7 (+ וְאַגִּידָה לָכֶם Greek Version of the LXX We Dr BuHpt Now), Proverbs 29:9; with עִם, of God Joel 4:2, of man 2 Chronicles 22:8; with ל, of God Jeremiah 25:31; יחד נשׁ׳ Isaiah 43:26 have controversy together; באשׁ by fire (of God) Isaiah 66:16; באמונה Isaiah 59:4.
2. passive be judged, Psalm 9:20; Psalm 37:33; Psalm 109:7.
Pô`el Participle suffix מְשֹׁפְטִי (dubious; Hi Bu מִשְׁפָּטִי), = my apponent-at-law (Ges§ 55 b) Job 9:15; + Zf Job 3:15; Psalm 109:31 We and others.

See related Aramaic BDB entry H8200.
Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon, Unabridged, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights reserved. Used by permission.

BLB Scripture Index of Brown-Driver-Briggs


16:5; 16:5; 18:25; 19:9; 19:9; 31:53; 31:53


2:14; 5:21; 8:13; 18:13; 18:16; 18:16; 18:22; 18:22; 18:26; 18:26; 18:26




25:5; 35:24


1:16; 1:16; 16:18; 16:18; 17:9; 17:12; 19:17; 19:18; 21:2; 25:1; 25:2


8:33; 23:2; 24:1


2:16; 2:17; 2:18; 2:18; 2:19; 3:10; 4:4; 10:2; 11:27; 16:31


1:1; 1:1

1 Samuel

3:13; 3:13; 4:18; 7:6; 7:15; 7:16; 7:17; 8:1; 8:2; 8:5; 8:6; 8:20; 12:7; 12:7; 24:13; 24:16; 24:16

2 Samuel

7:7; 7:11; 15:4; 18:19; 18:31

1 Kings

3:9; 3:28; 7:7; 8:32; 15:5

2 Kings

23:22; 23:22

1 Chronicles

16:33; 17:6; 17:10; 23:4; 26:29

2 Chronicles

1:2; 1:10; 1:11; 6:23; 19:5; 19:6; 19:6; 20:12; 22:8; 22:8; 26:21




3:15; 9:15; 9:24; 12:17; 21:22; 22:13; 23:7


2:10; 7:9; 7:12; 9:5; 9:9; 9:20; 10:18; 26:1; 35:24; 37:33; 37:33; 43:1; 50:6; 51:5; 58:2; 67:5; 72:4; 75:3; 75:8; 82:1; 82:2; 82:3; 82:8; 82:8; 94:2; 96:13; 96:13; 98:9; 98:9; 109:7; 109:7; 109:31; 109:31; 141:6; 148:11


8:16; 29:9; 29:14; 31:9; 31:9




1:17; 1:17; 1:23; 1:26; 2:4; 3:2; 5:3; 11:3; 11:3; 11:4; 16:5; 33:22; 40:23; 43:26; 59:4; 59:4; 66:16


2:35; 5:28; 11:20; 25:31


3:59; 3:59


7:3; 7:8; 7:27; 11:10; 11:11; 16:38; 17:20; 18:30; 20:4; 20:35; 20:36; 20:36; 20:36; 22:2; 23:24; 23:36; 23:45; 23:45; 24:14; 33:20; 34:17; 34:20; 34:22; 35:11; 36:19; 38:22; 44:24; 44:24




7:7; 13:10






3:11; 4:3; 5:1; 7:3




7:9; 7:9; 8:16

Word / Phrase / Strong's Search

Strong's Number H8199 matches the Hebrew שָׁפַט (šāp̄aṭ),
which occurs 204 times in 182 verses in the WLC Hebrew.

Page 1 / 4 (Gen 16:5–1Sa 8:1)

Unchecked Copy BoxGen 16:5 - And Sarai said to Abram, “May the violence done to me be upon you. I gave my servant-woman into your [fn]embrace, but she saw that she had conceived, so I became [fn]contemptible in her [fn]sight. May Yahweh judge H8199 between [fn]you and me.”
Unchecked Copy BoxGen 18:25 - “Far be it from You to do [fn]such a thing, to put to death the righteous with the wicked, so that the righteous and the wicked are treated alike. Far be it from You! Shall not the Judge H8199 of all the earth do justice?”
Unchecked Copy BoxGen 19:9 - But they said, “Step aside.” Furthermore, they said, “This one came to sojourn, and already H8199 he is persistently H8199 acting H8199 like H8199 a H8199 judge H8199; now we will treat you more wickedly than them.” So they pressed hard against [fn]Lot and stepped up to break the door.
Unchecked Copy BoxGen 31:53 - “The God of Abraham and the God of Nahor, the God of their father, judge H8199 between us.” So Jacob swore by the dread of his father Isaac.
Unchecked Copy BoxExo 2:14 - But he said, “Who made you a [fn]ruler or a judge H8199 over us? Are you [fn]intending to kill me as you killed the Egyptian?” Then Moses was afraid and said, “Surely the matter has become known.”
Unchecked Copy BoxExo 5:21 - And they said to them, “May Yahweh look upon you and judge H8199, for you have made [fn]us a foul smell in Pharaoh’s sight and in the sight of his servants, to put a sword in their hand to kill us.”
Unchecked Copy BoxExo 18:13 -

Now it happened the next day that Moses sat to judge H8199 the people, and the people stood about Moses from the morning until the evening.

Unchecked Copy BoxExo 18:16 - “When they have a matter, it comes to me, and I judge H8199 between a man and his neighbor and make known the statutes of God and His laws.”
Unchecked Copy BoxExo 18:22 - “And they will judge H8199 the people at all times. And it will be that every major matter they will bring to you, but every minor matter they themselves will judge H8199. So it will be easier for you, and they will bear the burden with you.
Unchecked Copy BoxExo 18:26 - And they judged H8199 the people at all times; the difficult matter they would bring to Moses, but every minor matter they themselves would judge H8199.
Unchecked Copy BoxLev 19:15 -

‘You shall do no injustice in judgment; you shall not be partial to the poor nor defer to the great, but you shall judge H8199 your neighbor in righteousness.

Unchecked Copy BoxNum 25:5 - So Moses said to the judges H8199 of Israel, “Each of you kill his men who have joined themselves to [fn]Baal of Peor.”
Unchecked Copy BoxNum 35:24 - then the congregation shall judge H8199 between the [fn]slayer and the blood avenger according to these legal judgments.
Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 1:16 -

“Then I commanded your judges H8199 at that time, saying, ‘Hear the cases between your brothers, and judge H8199 righteously between a man and his brother or the sojourner who is with him.

Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 16:18 -

“You shall appoint for yourself judges H8199 and officers in all your gates of the towns which Yahweh your God is giving you, according to your tribes, and they shall judge H8199 the people with righteous judgment.

Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 17:9 - “So you shall come to the Levitical priest or the judge H8199 who is in office in those days, and you shall inquire of them, and they will declare to you the judgment in the case.
Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 17:12 - “And the man who acts presumptuously by not listening to the priest who stands there to minister to Yahweh your God, or to the judge H8199, that man shall die; thus you shall purge the evil from Israel.
Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 19:17 - then both the men who have the dispute shall stand before Yahweh, before the priests and the judges H8199 who will be in office in those days.
Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 19:18 - “And the judges H8199 shall inquire thoroughly, and behold, if the witness is a false witness and he has [fn]accused his brother falsely,
Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 21:2 - then your elders and your judges H8199 shall go out and measure the distance to the cities which are around the slain one.
Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 25:1 -

“If there is a dispute between men and they go to court for judgment, and [fn]the judges H8199 judge H8199 their case, and they justify the righteous and condemn the wicked,

Unchecked Copy BoxDeu 25:2 - then it shall be if the wicked man [fn]deserves to be struck, the judge H8199 shall then make him lie down and be struck in his presence with the number of stripes according to his [fn]guilt.
Unchecked Copy BoxJos 8:33 - And all Israel with their elders and officers and their judges H8199 were standing on both sides of the ark before the Levitical priests who carried the ark of the covenant of Yahweh, the sojourner as well as the native. Half of them stood in front of Mount Gerizim and half of them in front of Mount Ebal, just as Moses the servant of Yahweh had given a command at first to bless the people of Israel.
Unchecked Copy BoxJos 23:2 - that Joshua called for all Israel, for their elders and their heads and their judges H8199 and their officers, and said to them, “I am old, advanced in years.
Unchecked Copy BoxJos 24:1 -

Then Joshua gathered all the tribes of Israel to Shechem and called for the elders of Israel and for their heads and their judges H8199 and their officers; and they presented themselves before God.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 2:16 -

Then Yahweh raised up judges H8199 [fn]who saved them from the hands of those who plundered them.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 2:17 - Yet they did not listen to their judges H8199 either, for they played the harlot after other gods and bowed themselves down to them. They turned aside quickly from the way in which their fathers had walked in obeying the commandments of Yahweh; they did not do as their fathers.
Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 2:18 - Now when Yahweh raised up judges H8199 for them, Yahweh was with the judge H8199 and saved them from the hand of their enemies all the days of the judge H8199; for Yahweh was moved to pity by their groaning because of those who oppressed and suppressed them.
Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 2:19 - But it happened when the judge H8199 died, that they would turn back and act more corruptly than their fathers, in following other gods to serve them and bow down to them; they did not abandon their practices or their stubborn ways.
Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 3:10 - And the Spirit of Yahweh came upon him, and he judged H8199 Israel. And he went out to war, and Yahweh gave Cushan-rishathaim king of [fn]Mesopotamia into his hand. So his hand was strong against Cushan-rishathaim.
Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 4:4 -

Now Deborah, a [fn]prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth, was judging H8199 Israel at that time.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 10:2 - And he judged H8199 Israel twenty-three years. Then he died and was buried in Shamir.
Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 10:3 -

After him, Jair the Gileadite arose and judged H8199 Israel twenty-two years.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 11:27 - ‘I therefore have not sinned against you, but you are doing me evil by making war against me; may Yahweh, the Judge H8199, judge H8199 today between the sons of Israel and the sons of Ammon.’”
Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 12:7 -

And Jephthah judged H8199 Israel six years. Then Jephthah the Gileadite died and was buried in one of the cities of Gilead.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 12:8 -

Then Ibzan of Bethlehem judged H8199 Israel after him.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 12:9 - And he had thirty sons, and thirty daughters whom he [fn]gave in marriage outside the family, and he brought in thirty daughters from outside for his sons. And he judged H8199 Israel seven years.
Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 12:11 -

Then Elon the Zebulunite judged H8199 Israel after him; and he judged H8199 Israel ten years.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 12:13 -

Then Abdon the son of Hillel the Pirathonite judged H8199 Israel after him.

Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 12:14 - And he had forty sons and thirty grandsons who rode on seventy donkeys; and he judged H8199 Israel eight years.
Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 15:20 - And he judged H8199 Israel twenty years in the days of the Philistines.
Unchecked Copy BoxJdg 16:31 - Then his brothers and all his father’s household came down, carried him, brought him up, and buried him between Zorah and Eshtaol, in the tomb of Manoah his father. Thus he had judged H8199 Israel twenty years.
Unchecked Copy BoxRth 1:1 -

Now it happened in the days when the judges H8199 judged H8199, that there was a famine in the land. And a certain man of Bethlehem in Judah went to sojourn in the fields of Moab [fn]with his wife and his two sons.

Unchecked Copy Box1Sa 3:13 - “And I have told him that I am about to judge H8199 his house forever for the iniquity which he knew because his sons have been bringing a curse on themselves, but he did not rebuke them.
Unchecked Copy Box1Sa 4:18 - And it happened that when he mentioned the ark of God, [fn]Eli fell off the seat backward beside the gate, and his neck was broken, and he died, for the man was old and heavy. Thus he judged H8199 Israel forty years.
Unchecked Copy Box1Sa 7:6 - And they gathered to Mizpah and drew water and poured it out before Yahweh and fasted on that day and said there, “We have sinned against Yahweh.” And Samuel judged H8199 the sons of Israel at Mizpah.
Unchecked Copy Box1Sa 7:15 -

Thus Samuel judged H8199 Israel all the days of his life.

Unchecked Copy Box1Sa 7:16 - And he used to go annually on circuit to Bethel and Gilgal and Mizpah, and he judged H8199 Israel in all these places.
Unchecked Copy Box1Sa 7:17 - But his return would be to Ramah, for his house was there, and there he judged H8199 Israel; and he built there an altar to Yahweh.
Unchecked Copy Box1Sa 8:1 -

And it happened when Samuel was old that he appointed his sons judges H8199 over Israel.

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2. LOAD PAGE 2 1Sa 8:2–Psa 50:6

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