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Study Resources :: Dictionaries :: Evil, Evil-Doer

Dictionaries :: Evil, Evil-Doer

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Below are articles from the following dictionary:
Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words
A-1 Adjective Strong's Number: g2556 Greek: kakos

Evil, Evil-Doer:

stands for "whatever is evil in character, base," in distinction (wherever the distinction is observable) from poneros (see No. 2), which indicates "what is evil in influence and effect, malignant." Kakos is the wider term and often covers the meaning of poneros. Kakos is antithetic to kalos, "fair, advisable, good in character," and to agathos, "beneficial, useful, good in act;" hence it denotes what is useless, incapable, bad; poneros is essentially antithetic to chrestos, "kind, gracious, serviceable;" hence it denotes what is destructive, injurious, evil. As evidence that poneros and kakos have much in common, though still not interchangeable, each is used of thoughts, cp. Mat 15:19 with Mar 7:21; of speech, Mat 5:11 with 1Pe 3:10; of actions, 2Ti 4:18 with 1Th 5:15; of man, Mat 18:32 with Mat 24:48.

The use of kakos may be broadly divided as follows:

(a) of what is morally or ethically "evil," whether of persons, e.g., Mat 21:41; 24:48; Phl 3:2; Rev 2:2, or qualities, emotions, passions, deeds, e.g., Mar 7:21; Jhn 18:23, 30; Rom 1:30; 3:8; 7:19, 21; 13:4; 14:20; 16:19; 1Cr 13:5; 2Cr 13:7; 1Th 5:15; 1Ti 6:10; 2Ti 4:14; 1Pe 3:9, 12;

(b) of what is injurious, destructive, baneful, pernicious, e.g., Luk 16:25; Act 16:28; 28:5; Tts 1:12; Jam 3:8; Rev 16:2, where kakos and poneros come in that order, "noisome and grievous." See B, No. 3. For compounds of kakos, see below.

A-2 Adjective Strong's Number: g4190 Greek: poneros

Evil, Evil-Doer:

akin to ponos, "labor, toil," denotes "evil that causes labor, pain, sorrow, malignant evil" (see No. 1); it is used

(a) with the meaning bad, worthless, in the physical sense, Mat 7:17, 18; in the moral or ethical sense, "evil," wicked; of persons, e.g., Mat 7:11; Luk 6:45; Act 17:5; 2Th 3:2; 2Ti 3:13; of "evil" spirits, e.g., Mat 12:45; Luk 7:21; Act 19:12, 13, 15, 16; of a generation, Mat 12:39, 45; 16:4; Luk 11:29; of things, e.g., Mat 5:11; 6:23; 20:15; Mar 7:22; Luk 11:34; Jhn 3:19; 7:7; Act 18:14; Gal 1:4; Col 1:21; 1Ti 6:4; 2Ti 4:18; Hbr 3:12; 10:22; Jam 2:4; 4:16; 1Jo 3:12; 2Jo 1:11; 3Jo 1:10;

(b) with the meaning toilsome, painful, Eph 5:16; 6:13; Rev 16:2. Cp. poneria, "iniquity, wickedness." For its use as a noun see B, No. 2.

A-3 Adjective Strong's Number: g5337 Greek: phaulos

Evil, Evil-Doer:

primarily denotes "slight, trivial, blown about by every wind;" then, "mean, common, bad," in the sense of being worthless, paltry or contemptible, belonging to a low order of things; in Jhn 5:29, those who have practiced "evil" things, RV, "ill" (phaula), are set in contrast to those who have done good things (agatha); the same contrast is presented in Rom 9:11; 2Cr 5:10, in each of which the most authentic mss. have phaulos for kakos; he who practices "evil" things (RV, "ill") hates the light, Jhn 3:20; jealousy and strife are accompanied by "every vile deed," Jam 3:16. It is used as a noun in Tts 2:8 (see B, No. 4).

B-1 Noun Strong's Number: g2549 Greek: kakia

Evil, Evil-Doer:

primarily, "badness" in quality (akin to A, No. 1), denotes

(a) "wickedness, depravity, malignity," e.g., Act 8:22, "wickedness;" Rom 1:29, "maliciousness;" in Jam 1:21, AV, "naughtiness;"

(b) "the evil of trouble, affliction," Mat 6:34, only, and here alone translated "evil."

B-2 Noun Strong's Number: g4190 Greek: poneros

Evil, Evil-Doer:

the adjective (A, No. 2), is used as a noun,

(a) of Satan as the "evil" one, Mat 5:37; 6:13; 13:19, 38; Luk 11:4 (in some texts); Jhn 17:15; Eph 6:16; 2Th 3:3; 1Jo 2:13, 14; 3:12; 5:18, 19;

(b) of human beings, Mat 5:45; (probably ver. 39); 13:49; 22:10; Luk 6:35; 1Cr 5:13;

(c) neuter, "evil (things)," Mat 9:4; 12:35; Mar 7:23; Luk 3:19; "that which is evil," Luk 6:45; Rom 12:9; Act 28:21, "harm."

B-3 Noun Strong's Number: g2556 Greek: kakon

Evil, Evil-Doer:

the neuter of A, No. 1, is used with the article, as a noun, e.g., Act 23:9; Rom 7:21; Hbr 5:14; in the plural, "evil things," e.g., 1Cr 10:6; 1Ti 6:10, "all kinds of evil," RV.

B-4 Noun Strong's Number: g5337 Greek: phaulon

Evil, Evil-Doer:

the neuter of A, No. 3, is used as a noun in Tts 2:8.

B-5 Noun Strong's Number: g2555 Greek: kakopois

Evil, Evil-Doer:

properly the masculine gender of the adjective, denotes an "evil-doer" (kakon, "evil," poieo, "to do"), 1Pe 2:12, 14; 4:15; in some mss. in 1Pe 3:16; Jhn 18:30 (so the AV). For a synonymous word see Note (1). Cp. the verb below. In the Sept., Pro 12:4; 24:19.


(1) Kakourgos, "an evil-worker" (kakon, "evil," ergon, "a work"), is translated "evil-doer" in 2Ti 2:9, AV (RV, "malefactor"). Cp. Luk 23:32, 33, 39.

(2) Adikema, "an injustice" (a, negative, dikaios, "just"), is translated "evil-doing," in Act 24:20, AV, RV, "wrong-doing."

C-1 Verb Strong's Number: g2559 Greek: kakoo

Evil, Evil-Doer:

"to ill-treat" (akin to A, No. 1), is rendered "to entreat evil" in Act 7:6, 19; "made (them) evil affected," Act 14:2.

C-2 Verb Strong's Number: g2554 Greek: kakopoieo

Evil, Evil-Doer:

signifies "to do evil" (cp. B, No. 5), Mar 3:4 (RV, "to do harm"); so, Luk 6:9; in 3Jo 1:11, "doeth evil," in 1Pe 3:17, "evil doing."

Note: Cp. kakologeo, "to speak evil" (see CURSE, SPEAK); kakopatheo, "to endure evil" (see ENDURE, SUFFER); kakopatheia, "suffering affliction" (see SUFFER); kakoucheo, "to suffer adversity" (see SUFFER).

D-1 Adverb Strong's Number: g2556 Greek: kakos

Evil, Evil-Doer:

"badly, evilly," akin to A, No. 1, is used in the physical sense, "to be sick," e.g., Mat 4:24; Mar 1:32, 34; Luk 5:31 (see DISEASE). In Mat 21:41 this adverb is used with the adjective, "He will miserably destroy those miserable men," more lit., "He will evilly destroy those men (evil as they are)," with stress on the adjective; (b) in the moral sense, "to speak evilly," Jhn 18:23; Act 23:5; "to ask evilly," Jam 4:3.


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