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Study Resources :: Dictionaries :: Concerning Redemption, The Work of Redemption

Dictionaries :: Concerning Redemption, The Work of Redemption

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Below are articles from the following dictionary:
Torrey's New Topical Textbook

Concerning Redemption, The Work of Redemption: The Union between Christ and the Believer

a. As to its nature.

1. Christ as the second Adam (1Cr 15:22) assumes in the covenant of grace those broken obligations of the covenant of works which the first Adam failed to discharge, and fulfils them all in behalf of all His "sheep"--those whom the Father has given Him.

2. Its spiritual and vital character.

a. It is a "spiritual" union.

1Cr 6:17; 12:13; 1Jo 3:24; 4:13

b. It is a "vital" union.

Jhn 14:19; Gal 2:20

c. It embraces our entire persons.

1Cr 6:15,19

d. It is an "indissoluble" union.

Jhn 10:28; 14:23; 17:21,23; 1Th 4:14,17

b. As to its consequences (in general)--

1. Believers have a community with Christ in His covenant standing and rights.

Rom 8:1; Eph 1:6,11,13; Phl 3:8,9; Col 2:10

His mediatorial office embraces three principal functions:--

(1) Prophet. In fellowship with Him the believer is a prophet.

Jhn 16:13; 1Jo 2:27.

(2) Priest. The believer is also a priest in Him.

Isa 61:6; 1Pe 2:5; Rev 20:6.

(3) King. In Him the believer is also a king.

1Pe 2:9; Rev 3:21; 5:10

2. Believers have fellowship with Him in the transforming, assimilating ower of His life.

a. As to their souls.

Rom 8:9; Phl 2:5; 1Jo 3:2

b. As to their bodies.

Rom 6:5; 1Cr 6:17,19; 15:47,49; Phl 3:21.

Thus bearing fruit to Christ, both in their bodies and in their spirits which are His.

Jhn 15:5; 2Cr 12:9; 1Jo 1:6

3. This leads to fellowship with Christ, in experience, labours, sufferings, temptation, death, and finally, in His glory.

Gal 6:17; Phl 3:10; Hbr 12:3; 1Pe 4:13

4. Also to Christ's rightful fellowship with them in all "they" possess.

Rom 14:8; 1Cr 6:19,20

5. Also to the consequence that in the spiritual reception of the ordinances, they do really hold fellowship with Him. They are baptised into Christ.

Jhn 6:51,56; 1Cr 10:16; 11:26; Gal 3:27

Concerning Redemption, The Work of Redemption: Doctrines Connected with the Union of Christ with the Believer

a. Repentance.

1. Repentance includes a sense of personal guilt, pollution, and helplessness, an apprehension of the mercy of God in Christ, grief and hatred of sin, a resolute turning from it unto God, and a persistent endeavour after a new life of holy obedience.

2. True repentance brings the believer to see and appreciate the holiness of God as revealed alike in the law and in the gospel, and in that light to see and feel the exceeding sinfulness of all sin as well as the sinfulness of his own nature.

Job 42:6; Psa 51:4-9; Rom 3:20

3. The awakened conscience echoes God's law, and can be appeased by no less a propitiation than that demanded by divine justice itself.

4. The evidence of genuine repentance.

a. To be determined by prayerful study of the Scriptures in connection with self-examination.

b. By the hatred and forsaking of secret as well as of open sins, the choice of God's service as both right and desirable, public confession, and practical consecration.

5. Scripture examples of repentance.

a. True.

2Sa 12:13; Psa 51:4; 2Sa 24:10; Luk 15:18,21; 18:13

b. False.

Exd 9:27,34; 10:16,20; 1Sa 15:24; Mat 27:4,5

b. Faith.

1. New Testament usage.

a. That state of mind which is induced by persuasion.

Rom 14:22

b. Good faith, fidelity, sincerity.

Rom 3:3; Tts 2:10

c. Assent to the truth.

Phl 1:27; 2Th 2:13

d. Faith toward, on, or in God.

Mar 11:22; 1Th 1:8; Hbr 6:1; 1Pe 1:21. In Christ. Act 24:24; Rom 3:25; Gal 2:16-20

e. The object of faith; viz., the revelation of the gospel.

Rom 1:5; 10:8; 1Ti 4:1; Jud 1:3,20

2. Knowledge is the apprehension of an object as true, and faith is an assent to its truth. In this general sense every exercise of faith includes the knowledge of the object assented to.

3. Religious faith rests,

first, upon the faithfulness of God as pledged in His supernatural revelation, Jhn 3:33;

second, upon the evidence of spiritual illumination, personal experience of the power of the truth, and the witness of the Holy Spirit. Thus it rests not in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God, 1Cr 2:5-12.

4. The two kinds of evidence by which we know that God has revealed certain truths as objects of faith.

a. The evidence in the truth itself--moral, spiritual, experimental, rational.

Jer 23:29; Jhn 6:33; 14:7,26

b. The accrediting evidence of the presence and power of God accompanying the promulgation of the truth, and proving that it is from Him. These are miracles, providential periods, and the fulfilment of prophecy.

Jhn 5:36; Hbr 2:4

5. That saving faith includes trust is proved from the uniform and single condition of salvation as presented in the Scriptures, expressed in the words "believe in, or on, Christ."

Jhn 7:38; Act 9:42; 16:31; Gal 2:16.

To believe in, or on, a person, necessarily implies trust as well as credit.

Act 26:18; Gal 3:26; 2Ti 3:15; Hbr 11:1

6. The same proved from expressions used in the Scriptures as equivalent to the phrase "believing in Christ." Such expressions are:

Receiving Christ,

Jhn 1:12.

Looking to Christ,

Isa 45:22; Num 21:19; Jhn 3:14,15.

Fleeing for refuge,

Hbr 6:18.

Coming to Christ,

Mat 11:28; Jhn 6:35,37.

Committing unto Christ,

2Ti 1:12

7. The object of faith is the person and work of the Lord Jesus Christ as mediator.

a. We are justified by that faith of which Christ is the object.

Rom 3:22,25; Gal 2:16; Phl 3:9

b. Saved by faith in Christ.

Jhn 1:12; 3:16,36; 6:35; Act 10:43; 16:31

c. The rejection of Christ, or refusal to submit to the righteousness of God declared to be the ground of reprobation.

Jhn 3:18,19; 8:24

8. Assurance of salvation attainable through faith.

Directly asserted.

Rom 8:16; 2Pe 1:10; 1Jo 2:3; 3:14; 5:13.

Scriptural examples:

2Ti 1:12; 4:7,8.

Begets unfeigned humility.

1Cr 15:10; Gal 6:14.

Leads to ever increasing diligence in practical religion.

Psa 51:12,13,19.

Also to candid self-examination and a desire to be searched and corrected by God.

Psa 139:23,24.

Also to constant aspirations after nearer conformity to, and more intimate communion with God.

1Jo 3:2,3

9. Living faith leads to good works.

Act 15:9; 26:18; Gal 5:6; Jam 2:14-26; 1Jo 5:4

c. Regeneration.

1. Scripture terms by which this work of God is designated:


Eph 4:24.


1Jo 4:7.


Jhn 5:21; Eph 2:5.

Calling out of darkness into marvellous light.

1Pe 2:9.

The subjects of it are said--

To be alive from the dead. Rom 6:13.

To be new creatures. 2Cr 5:17.

To be born again, or anew. Jhn 3:3,7.

To be God's workmanship. Eph 2:10

2. Proof that there is such a thing as is commonly called regeneration.

a. The Scriptures declare that such a change is necessary.

2Cr 5:17; Gal 6:15

b. The change is described.

Eph 2:5; 4:23; Jam 1:18; 1Pe 1:23

c. It is necessary for the most moral as well as the most profligate.

1Cr 15:10; Gal 1:13-16

d. That this change is not a mere reformation is proved by its being referred to the Holy Spirit.

Tts 3:5

e. In the comparison of man's state in grace with his state by nature.

Rom 6:13; 8:6-10; Eph 5:8

f. In the experience of all Christians and the testimony of their lives.

3. Proofs that believers are subjects of supernatural, or spiritual illumination.

a. This is necessary.

Jhn 16:3; 1Cr 2:14; 2Cr 3:14; 4:3

b. The Scriptures expressly affirm it.

Psa 19:7,8; 43:3,4; Jhn 17:3; 1Cr 2:12,13; 2Cr 4:6; Eph 1:18; Phl 1:19; Col 3:10; 1Jo 4:7; 5:20

The first effect of regeneration is to open the eyes of our understanding to the excellency of divine truth. The second effect is the going forth of the renewed affections toward that excellency perceived.

4. Proof of the absolute necessity of regeneration.

a. The Scriptures assert it.

Jhn 3:3; Rom 8:6,7; Eph 2:10; 4:21-24

b. It is proved from the nature of man as a sinner.

Rom 7:18; 8:7-9; 1Cr 2:14; Eph 2:1

c. Also from the nature of heaven.

Isa 35:8; 52:1; Mat 5:8; 13:41; Hbr 12:14; Rev 21:27

d. The restoration of holiness is the grand end of the whole plan of salvation.

Rom 8:28,29; Eph 1:4; 5:5,26,27

d. Justification

1. Its fundamental idea is that of perfect conformity to all of the requirements of the moral law.

2. The usage of "to justify." It means to declare a person to be just.

a. Because personally conformed to the law as to moral character.

Luk 7:29; Rom 3:4

b. Because, forensically, the demands of the law as a condition of life have been fully satisfied in regard to Him.

Act 13:39; Rom 5:1,9; 8:30,33; 1Cr 6:11; Gal 2:16; 3:11

3. And

(1) The ungodly are said to be justified without the deeds of of the law, by the blood of Christ, by faith, freely, and of grace, by means of a satisfaction and of imputed righteousness.

Rom 3:20-28; 4:5-7; 5:1; Gal 2:16; 3:11; 5:4; 1Jo 2:2

(2) The contrary of condemnation.

Rom 8:33,34

(3) The same idea conveyed in many equivalent and interchangeable expressions.

Jhn 3:18; 5:24; Rom 4:6,7; 2Cr 5:19

4. The terms "righteousness" and "righteousness of God" in the New Testament signify:--

a. Holiness of character.

Mat 5:6; Rom 6:13; 10:3-5; Phl 3:9; Tts 3:5

b. The vicarious obedience and sufferings of Christ our substitute, which become our righteousness, received and appropriated by us through faith.

Rom 3:22; 4:6,11; 10:4-10; 1Cr 1:30

The phrase "righteousness of God" means that perfect righteousness or satisfaction to the whole law, precept and penalty alike, which God provides, and which God will accept.

Mat 6:33; Rom 1:17; 2Cr 5:21; Jam 1:20

5. The term "justification," occurs only in

Rom 4:25; 5:16,18.

It signifies that relation to the law into which we are brought in consequence of the righteousness of Christ being made legally ours. We are absolved from all liability to the penalty, and the rewards promised to obedience are declared to belong to us.

6. The requirement of the law in order to the justification of a sinner.

The law consists of a rule of duty and a penalty to take effect in case of disobedience. In the case of the sinner, therefore, who has already incurred guilt, the law demands that, besides the rendering of perfect obedience, the penalty also should be suffered.

Rom 10:5; Gal 3:10-13

7. Proof that works cannot be the ground of a sinner's justification.

a. Paul repeatedly asserts this.

Gal 2:16; Phl 3:9

b. The law demands perfect obedience. No act of obedience at one time can atone for disobedience at another.

Gal 2:10,21; 5:3

c. If we are justified by works, then Christ is dead in vain.

Gal 2:21; 5:4

d. If it were of works it would not be of grace.

Rom 11:6; Eph 2:8,9

e. It would afford cause for boasting.

Rom 3:27; 4:2

f. Paul also quotes the Old Testament to prove that all men are sinners

Rom 3:9,10; and that consequently they cannot be justified by works. Psa 143:2; Rom 3:20. He quotes

Hab 2:4 to prove that the just shall live by faith, and cites the example of Abraham. Gal 3:6

8. The ground of justification is the righteousness of Christ.

Rom 10:4; 1Cr 1:30

Faith is the essential prerequisite and instrument of receiving that righteousness.

Eph 2:8

Justification is a declaration on the part of God that the law is satisfied because of the righteousness of Christ, which is imputed to believers, and the merits of which are received by them through faith.

9. The sense in which Christ's righteousness is imputed.

Imputation is an act of God as sovereign judge, whereby

(1) He makes the guilt and legal responsibilities of our sins really Christ's (Isa 53:5,11; Jhn 1:29; 2Cr 5:21; Gal 3:13); and whereby

(2) He makes the righteousness of Christ ours (that is, the legal right to reward, by the gracious covenant conditioned on righteousness), and then treats us as persons legally invested with those rights. Rom 4:6; 10:4; 1Cr 1:30; 2Cr 5:21; Phl 3:9

Imputation is the charging or crediting to one's account as the ground of judicial treatment.

As Christ is not made a sinner by the imputation to Him of our sins, so we are not made holy by the imputation to us of His righteousness. The transfer is only of guilt from us to Him, and of merit from Him to us.

Rom 5:12-21; 4:6; 3:21; 5:19

10. The nature of the peace which flows from justification.

a. Peace with God,

His justice being completely satisfied through the righteousness of Christ.

Rom 5:1; 2Cr 5:19; Col 1:21; Eph 2:14.

In witness of this His Holy Spirit is given to us.

Rom 8:15,16; Hbr 10:15,17.

His love is shed abroad in our hearts ( Rom 5:5), and our fellowship with His is established.

b. Inward peace of conscience, through the apprehension of the righteousness by which we are justified.

Hbr 9:15; 10:2,22

e. Adoption.

1. Classes of persons to whom the term "sons" or "children of God" is applied in the Scriptures.

a. In the singular, the term is applied in a supreme sense to the Second Person of the Trinity alone.

b. In the plural, to angels, because they are God's favoured creatures.

Job 1:6; 38:7

c. To human magistrates, because the possess authority delegated from God.

Psa 82:6

d. To good men as the subjects of a divine adoption.

The sonship which this adoption confers is twofold:--

1. General and external. Exd 4:11; 9:4

2. Special, spiritual, and immortal. Gal 4:5; Eph 1:4-6

2. That which is represented in Scripture as involved in being a child of God by adoption.

a. Derivation of nature from God.

Jhn 1:13; Jam 1:18; 1Jo 5:18

b. Being born again in the image of God, bearing His likeness.

Rom 8:29; 2Cr 3:18; Col 3:10; 2Pe 1:4

c. Bearing His name.

1Jo 3:1; Rev 2:17; 3:12

d. Being the object of His peculiar love.

Jhn 17:23; Rom 5:5-8; Tts 3:4; 1Jo 4:7-11

e. The indwelling Spirit of His Son (Gal 4:5,6), forms in us a spirit becoming the children of God:

Obedient (1Pe 1:14; 2Jo 1:6);

free from sense of guilt, legal bondage, and fear of death (Rom 8:15; Gal 5:1; Hbr 2:15);

and elevated with a holy boldness and royal dignity.Hbr 10:19,22; 1Pe 2:9; 4:14

f. Present protection, consolations, and abundant provisions.

Psa 125:2; Isa 66:13; Luk 12:27-32; Jhn 14:18; 1Cr 3:21-23; 2Cr 1:4

g. Present fatherly chastisements for our good.

Psa 51:11,12; Hbr 12:5-11

h. The certain inheritance of the riches of our Father's glory as heirs with God and joint-heirs with Christ

(Rom 8:17; Jam 2:5; 1Pe 1:4; 3:7); including the exaltation of our bodies to the fellowship with Him. Rom 8:23; Phl 3:21

3. Adoption proceeds from the Father, upon the merits of the Son, by the agency of the Holy Spirit.

Jhn 1:12,13; Gal 4:5,6; Tts 3:5,6; Rom 8:17,29; Hbr 2:17; 4:15.

All believers being subjects of the same adoption, are brethren.

Eph 3:6; 1Jo 3:14; 5:1

f. Sanctification.

1. To make clean physically or morally.

(a) Of ceremonial purification.

Hbr 9:13.

(b) To render clean in a moral sense.

1Cr 6:11; Hbr 13:12.

(c) To set apart from a common to a sacred use, to devote.

Mat 23:17; Jhn 10:36; Mat 6:9; 1Pe 3:15

2. Regeneration is the creative act of the Holy Spirit, implanting a new principle of spiritual life in the soul. Sanctification is the sustaining and developing work of the Holy Spirit, bringing all the faculties of the soul more and more perfectly under the purifying and regulating principle of spiritual life.

3. The sense in which the body is sanctified.

As being the temple of the Holy Spirit.

1Cr 6:19

As being a member of Christ.

1Cr 6:15

It will be made like Christ's glorified body.

1Cr 15:44; Phl 3:21

4. To who the work of sanctification is referred.

a. To the Father.

1Th 5:23; Hbr 13:21

b. To the Son.

Eph 5:25,26; Tts 2:14

c. To the Holy Spirit.

1Cr 6:11; 2Th 2:13

5. The agency of the truth in the work of sanctification.

Psa 119:9-11; Jhn 17:19; Jam 1:18; 1Pe 1:22; 2:2; 2Pe 1:4


The Blue Letter Bible ministry and the BLB Institute hold to the historical, conservative Christian faith, which includes a firm belief in the inerrancy of Scripture. Since the text and audio content provided by BLB represent a range of evangelical traditions, all of the ideas and principles conveyed in the resource materials are not necessarily affirmed, in total, by this ministry.


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